A) 371-2020 MARTIN, SECOND BISHOP OF TOURS
The long list of Touraine prelates
Here is an old Latin writing, the "Sancta et Metropolitana Ecclesia Turonensis" by Jean Maan, dated 1667. The author had access to archival documents, many of which were lost during the Revolution or the burning of the Tours library in 1940. It presents fourteen centuries of the life of the bishops of Tours, beginning with several (very large) pages on Gatien. A second part deals with the history of the councils and synods held in the ecclesiastical province. This massive work (from which these two photos are taken, the second showing the list of bishops of Tours according to Gregory) is available at the Denis Antique Bookstore in Tours (in October 2019 + catalog with books on Touraine). A translation by Paul Letort was published, in very limited print, in 1997 (ed. du Python).
The non-existence of Gatien now garners wide assent among historians, as shown by this note by Henri Galinié in the book Ta&m 2007 (page 285).
Lidoire, the first bishop of Tours. At left, fresco by Louis de Bodin de Galembert, before restoration [oratory of the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Tours, 1872, "The Legend of Saint Martin in the 19th Century" 1997]. In the center, stained glass window from Notre Dame la Riche church in Tours (link) On the right, statue of the church Notre Dame des Essards in Touraine (link). + vitrail by Lux Fournier 1912 in the church of St. Martin de Tauxigny, between Tours and Loches (link).
Sanctus Lidorius under the dome of the present-day Basilica of Saint Martin in Tours, fresco by Pierre Fritel.
An analysis of the construction of Tours Cathedral in the album Guignolet 1984 + the eight plates : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8.
The Saint Gatien Cathedral of Tours. 1) in the 19th century + engraving 1603 [BmT] + painting by William Turner 1826 + engraving 1841 Clarey-Martineau + engraving 1844 ["Tours, guide to the foreigner"] + four engravings LTh&m 1855 : 1 2 3 4 + engraving 1874 on a map of Tours. 2) in 2020 + photo 2019 at night. 3) The nave. 4) A fresco on the sharing of the mantle, with faded colors (photo) here enhanced (page flickr by Philippe_28]. This building is of a Gothic classicism that was admired by Viollet Leduc ["La cathédrale de Tours", Claude Andrault-Schmitt, Geste Editions 2010]. + postcard 1975 aerial view. + site parish (St Maurice parish, not St Gatien...). The cathedral is also home to a famous painting by Jean-Victor Schnetz that will be featured hereafter.
Martin honored in Tours Cathedral with three large dedicated bays, numbered 204, 4 and 8. 1) The large bay, #204, dated about 1260 (reading from bottom to top) [drawing by Costigliole, "La cathédrale de Tours", Claude Andrault-Schmitt, Geste Editions 2010] + another repeat in Lecoy 1881 + photo + excerpt + photo of the other two bays complementing each other (#4 and #8 circa 1270-1290) dedicated to Martin + excerpt bay 8. + two links with chronological detail of all scenes : 1 (bay 4) 2 (bay 8). 2) The sharing of the cloak (bay #204). 3) Martin delivers a possessed man, the devil coming out of his mouth (the face has been blackened...) (bay #8). 4) "The Cathedral Illuminations" in summer 2018 with Martin superimposed (or else the ghost of Gatien ?) + three other Martin scenes from this show : 1 2 3 + other scene. This page will showcase some of the other stained glass windows in these bays. In 2013, on the theme of St. Martin, stained glass windows of a complexity that is difficult to read, even with explanations, were added, made by Gérard Collin-Thiébaut and Pierre-Alain Parot, with this notice (link).
Martin and Maurice. At left, 15th century tapestry "Saint Martin spouting the blood of Saint Maurice at Agaune" housed in the Treasury of the Saint Maurice Cathedral of Angers [Lecoy 1881]. Then, in the same building, stained glass window "Miracle of the blood of Maurice" from the 13th century. + two other representations of the same scene in "The Life and Miracles of Bishop Saint Martin" : 1 version 1516 [BmT, commentary by Claude Andrault-Schmitt, "La cathédrale de Tours", Geste Editions 2010]. 2 version 1496 [BnF] + vitrail 1900 [Edouard Didron, church of Saint Martin le Hébert, in Normandy]. Next stained glass window from the Lobin workshop in the Church of Notre-Dame de la Légion d'Honneur in Longué (Anjou) with the two saints (Martin on the right) [illustrations Semur 2015]. On the right is a stained glass window from the Church of St. Nicholas in the former Abbey of St. Maurice in Blasimon. On this tableau by Hans Holbein the Younger 1522, Martin is paired with another Theban legionary, Bear / Ursus of Solothurn (link). + three pages from Nhuan DoDuc's website featuring stained glass windows by Maurice : 1 2 3. + three stained-glass windows from Tours Cathedral illustrating the martyrdom of Maurice and his fellow legions [Catalog 2016]. There is still a "vase of St. Martin" in St. Maurice, Switzerland, the story of which is told on this page of the "Martinian Letter" 2005-3 (with a photo of this vase and the one in Candes).
"historically correct" illustrations. 1) At the abbey of Saint Benoît sur Loire, circa 1000 [flickr Odile Cognard, link]. 2) Late 11th century, Hilaire le Grand church, Poitiers [flickr Philippe 28, link]. 3) Image taken from the Arte TV movie (see box below).
The invention of militaristic images. Already in the thirteenth century, in the stained glass windows of cathedrals, it is as a horseman that Martin tears his cloak (which is not yet always red). The monk-bishop became a "military hero", for example on this illustration from a breviary of Tours in 1635 [Collective 2019]. This image is imposed and, in France, it takes an official look in the nineteenth century. The Arte TV movie echoes this by presenting the above picture on the left as a reference.
Throughout this page, we look back at the sharing of the mantle, particularly according to the eras : late medieval and classical times hereafter, in the nineteenth century hereafter, in the twentieth century hereafter and again hereafter.
The abbey of Saint Martin aux Jumeaux in Amiens on the site of the mantle sharing. Built in 1073, with a church of Saint Martin du Bourg where Thomas Becket celebrated mass in 1165, its buildings were used as a court house after the Revolution. They proved unsuitable and were demolished in 1860 to make way for a brand new courthouse. On the left the abbey, in the center the superimposed plans of the abbey and the new courthouse. On the right is the sculpture by Justin-Chrysostome Sanson, 1880, on one of the walls, at the presumed spot where Martin shared his mantle. It is captioned by two plaques (photo). + link with additional information. Add image anachronistically of Martin in front of Amiens Cathedral (origin undetermined, link).
Sharing the mantle is the Martinian stamp. As these few examples, reproductions of Lecoy 1881, illustrate, the shared cloak scene is one of the key factors in Martin's popularity throughout the centuries. It can only point to Martin as a signature, a stamp. 1) Pawn for a game of tables carved from a walrus tusk [12th century, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford]. 2) Painted earthenware plate [18th century]. 3) Cider broc [Abbé Guiot's collection, 1761].
So here is the famous Fulda miniature, the earliest known illustration of Martin's Charity, in which a young soldier dresses a shivering wretch with half his cloak and sees him again in a dream the next night as his God. Dated about 975, it comes from a sacramentary of Fulda Abbey in Germany [Göttingen Library, link). The mantle is not red and there is no horse. Three variations are known, the two shown above and this one. [Maupoix 2018, Catalog 2016].
Permanence of the double scene. The two scenes from the Fulda miniatures are found in this monumental (7 m long) 1941 painting by Basque painter Isaak Diez De Ibarrondo, a refugee in France after the Spanish War, in the church of St. Martin d'Oydes in Ariège (link). The double title is inscribed on the border "Martin still a catechumen shares his officer's cloak with a poor man" and "That same evening Martin sees Christ who says "You have clothed me with this cloak". The second scene features two rows of angels, as in the Fulda miniatures. This double scene can be found on these three miniatures : 1 psautier de Saint Alban circa 1130 [Maupoix 2018] 2 "Martinellus" 1110 [BmT] 3 Richer of Metz manuscript of the same period [after 1102, Trier Library]. On three frescoes : 1 cathedral of Bayonne [flickr Marie-Hélène Cingal] 2 church of St Martin de Brull in Catalonia [flickr 11299883] 3 Church of St. Martin of Wangen im Allgäu in Germany [Gebhard Fugel, 1900, flickr János Korom]. And on three double paintings : 1 [Félix Villé circa 1895, St Martin des Champs church in Paris] 2 [Fidelis Schabet 1846, St Martin's Church in Unteressendorf (Hochdorf), Germany, Wikimedia] 3 [Francesco d'Antonio del Chierico, Saint Martin's Oratory of Florence, Italy, link].
Scene 2 of the cloak sharing: the dream of Martin. The poor man's given half-cape reappears in a dream covering God/Christ. Two illustrations from the book Maupoix 2018 : stained glass window from the collegiate church of Candes, by Félix Gaudin 1900, and painting from the Basilica of Saint Saviour in Pavia, Italy (+ view of the ensemble, Semur 2015). + from the same book : a vitrail of Chartres Cathedral and an anonymous tableau from the church of Saint Julien in Tours, 1687 + seventeen other illustrations : 1 [stained glass window from Tours Cathedral, bay #4] 2 [altarpiece panel, Francisco de Osona, early 16th century, Goya Museum of Castres Catalog 2016] 3 (Hungary) 4 wooden bas-relief from Figeac in the Lot, in the presence of Saints Peter and Paul (link) 5 painting from the church of Saint Martin de Dormelles in Ile de France (links : 1 2) 6 [Leconte and Colin 1891, St Martin de Moutiers church in Brittany] 7 [Jacques Stella, Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg, Russia, link] 8 [St. Martin de Bazeilles church in the Ardennes, link] 9 [Louis de Bodin de Galembert, church of Saint Martin du Limet in Mayenne] 10 [1886, Olivier Durieux, church of St Martin de Esquéhéries in Picardie] 11 [1701, church of Saint Martin de Jussac in Limousin, link] 12 [Victor-Casimir Zier, 1854, St. Martin de Meillac church in Brittany, link] 13 [St. Martin de Cublize church in the Rhône] 14 [St Martin's Church of Macquigny in the Aisne] 15 [Christopher Whall 1905, St. Martin's Cathedral, Leicester, flickr Aidan McRae Thomson] 16 miniature of the Salisbury Breviary [Lecoy 1881] 17 painting by Winifred Knights circa 1930 (link).
The birth of Martin pictured on a fresco in the church of San Martino in Siccomario, Italy [Semur 2015] and on a watercolor by an artist from his home country of Hungary (link). + a medallion from dalmatic from the collegiate church of St. Martin in Kortrijk, 16th century [Maupoix 2018], + a vitrail from the 16th century church of Saint Florentin in Yonne. + miniature from the Pannonhalma gospel in Hungary, with Martin being born in a stable [Pannonhalma Abbey library circa 1510, Lorincz 2001]
Hungary and Martin. On the left is Szombathely, the birthplace of Martin. In the background the church of Saint Martin. In the foreground a statue of Martin blessing his mother [sculpture by Istvan Rumi Rajki 1938, links : 1 2] and on the right the "well of Saint Martin". + view from the sky [Lorincz 2001] + view ancient with the first name of Sabaria [Collective 2019] + cuts by church construction periods [1997 Colloquium SAT] + model of the statue [Catalog 2016]. On the right, 92 km from Szombathely in Hungary, the abbey of Pannonhalma on Mount St. Martin, founded in 996, a World Heritage UNESCO tourist and pilgrimage site, home to 45 Benedictine monks [Wikipedia photo]. + other photo [Lorincz 2001] + the library of the abbey [Semur 2015] + vitrail depicting Bishop Martin.and two scenes [flickr Zsolt Andrasi]. Remarks of Konkoly Istvan, Bishop of Szombathely, in 2001 : "Our first king, Saint Stephen, had the image of Martin embroidered on his flags. During his rule, St. Martin became, after the virgin, the second patron saint of Hungary. In 1903, at the Council of Szabolcs, our king Ladislas declared St. Martin a mandatory public holiday throughout the kingdom, preceded by a three-day youth."
Martin's childhood in Pavia. Apparently an only child, Martin grew up in the Italian city of Pavia, probably attending a school. On the left, medallion of dalmatic [16th century, Courtrai in Belgium, Maupoix 2018]. On the right, Martin, in green, learns to read by following the lines with his finger [stained glass window from the church of Saint Florentin in Burgundy]. + plank from BD Utrecht 2016, box below.
Young Martin forced by his father to enlist in the army. Maric - Frisano 1994 + the plank + brodery from the 14th century at the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art where the child Martin announces to his parents his desire to become a Christian.
316: birth in Pannonia (Hungary).
321 (5 years): childhood in Pavia (Italy)
332 (16 years): enlistment in the army
334 (18 years old): sharing the mantle in Amiens, baptism
356 (40 years old): leaving the army
360 (44 years): foundation of the monastery of Ligugé
371 (55 years): election to the bishopric of Tours
372 (56 years) : foundation of the monastery of Marmoutier
385 (69 years): journey to Trier, Priscillian affair
397 (81 years old) : death in Candes
At left case coupled with the sharing of the mantle on a miniature by Master Francis 1460 [BnF]. In the center, stained glass window from the church of Saint Martin le Beau in Touraine [atelier Lobin]. On the right, stained glass window from the church of Saint Martin de Restigné in Touraine [workshop of Félix Gaudin, Paris, Verrière 2018] + seven other stained glass windows : 1 cathedral of Tours (bay #204) 2 Chartres Cathedral 3 Bourges Cathedral [Verry 2018] 4 church in Saint Martin es Vignes in the Aube 5 church of Saint Florentin in Yonne 6 [church of St. Martin de Wimy in the Aisne] 7 [St Martin's Church of Rumilly lès Vaudes in Aube, Nguyen DoDuc] + Icelandic embroidery preserved in the Louvre, ca. 15th century [Maupoix 2018] + image from La Bonne Presse 20th century. .
(those who actually ruled it, whether Augustus or Caesar, officially recognized or so-called usurpers)
Constantin I 310-337 Arles, Trier, Sirmium, Constantinople
Constantine II 337-340 Trier
Constantine I 340-350 Sirmium, Milan
Magnia 350-353 Lyon, Arles, Rome
Constantius II 353-355 Sirmium, Constantinople
Julian 355-363 Vienna, Sens, Paris, Constantinople
Jovian 363-364 Constantinople
Valentine I 364-375 Milan, Trier
Gratian 375-383 Trier
Magnus Maximus 383-388 Trier
Valentino II 388-392 Milan, Vienna
Theodosius I 392-395 Arles, Rome
Flavius Honorius 395-423 Rome, Ravenna
On the left, Gaul from 367 to 388 under Gratian and Magnus Maximus, during the episcopate of Martin, and also from 355 to 361 under Julian.
In the center stained glass window of the church of St. Martin de Saint Martin du Lac, in Burgundy (photo Odile Cognard, link + another vitrail showing Julien and Martin [church in Avallon in Burgundy, flickr Grangeburn]. On the right two boxes by Brunor - Bar 2009 + three plates : 1 2 3. + the same scene in two plates by Maric - Frisano 1994 : 1 2 + the same encounter in a tableau by Simone Martini [fresco in the St. Martin's Chapel in Assisi, Italy, ca. 1325] + in his copy in restored colors [flickr Hen-Magonza] + in his reproduction [Lecoy 1881], in a miniature of the "Martinellus" 1110 [BmT]. and in a vitrail from Nouans les Fontaines in Touraine [atelier Lobin 1876, Verrière 2018].
On the left, Martin lays down his helmet and arms and leaves the army [église Saint Martin de Berthenay, in Touraine, Amand Clément 1878, Verrière 2018]
On the left, Martin's major travels [Semur 2015] + two more maps with some supplements : 1 [Catalogue 2016] 2 [LM 2007-4].
Martin confronts the demons. On the left, stained glass window from the church of Saint Martin de Ligugé where Martin is ordained as an exorcist by Hilaire. On the right painting from the Church of Saint Martin of Asse, in Belgium [circa 1880, link]. + tableau of Tours Cathedral [Maupoix 2018] + brodery [New York's Metropolitan museum of art, Maupoix 2018] + engraving where Hilaire gives Martin the religious habit [BmT 1516, Lecoy 1881] + four stained glass windows : 1 [13th century, Saint Martin d'Anctoville-sur-Boscq church, Manche, link] 2 [Jacques le Breton, Jean Gaudin, Paris, 1935, church of St. Martin de Restigné, in Touraine, Verrière 2018]. 3 Hilaire tonsure Martin (with modern scissors !) [one of the nine paintings in the St. Hilaire glass roof of the St. Hilaire Church in Menétréol sous Sancerre in the Cher, link] 4 [Bourges Cathedral, flickr Paco Barranco]
His mother, not his father. After completing his long years of military obligations and briefly knowing Hilaire, bishop of Poitiers, Martin travels for four years, from 356 to 360. He sees his parents again, converts his mother, but not his father. The same scene on the left in an engraving by Jacques-Emile Lafon [Lecoy 1881]. On the right, Martin's father gives an argumentative refusal to his son, who "didn't know what to say" [Brunor - Bar 2009]. + tableau by Bernard Benezet at the church in Buzet sur Tarn (link). + three stained glass windows : 1 [Candes , workshop of Félix Gaudin from Paris, Verriere 2018] 2 [Church of St. Martin de Beaupréau, link] 3 [St Martin's Church of Ammerschwihr in Alsace].
Martin humiliated by the Arians in Milan. In Milan, sometimes considered a Sabellian (follower of Sabellius) (one understands the criticisms of division of Christians made by Fr.), Martin is whipped and driven out by the Arians and the bishop Auxentius (who was succeeded by the Nicene Ambrose). This passage to Milan is depicted on the left by a 1994 Maric-Frisano box and in the center in a stained glass window of St. Florentin (Yonne, bay on the life of St. Martin, link) (with the anachronism of a Martin clothed as a bishop). + the same scene on a vitrail from the church of Saint Martin in Louveciennes, Yvelines (link). + three variations of the passage to Milan in three comic strips : 1 [Brunor - Bar 2009] 2 [Maric - Frisano 1994] 3 [Mestrallet, Fagot - d'Esme 1996]
The Temptation of St. Anthony is a recurring theme in many painters' pictures. There, Anthony, the recluse in the Egyptian desert, suffers the temptation of the Devil in the form of visions of earthly voluptuousness. This is a version by David Teniers the Younger [ca. 1650, Lille Museum, Wikipedia], who, highly inspired, produced at least five more : 1 2 3 4 5 [4 and 5 : Louvre Museum] (link). + (without resisting the temptation...) fourteen other paintings [Wikipedia] : 1 [Michelangelo circa 1487, Kimbell Museum, Texas] 2 [Jerome Bosch circa 1500, National Museum of Ancient Art Lisbon] 3 [Joachim Patinier circa 1522, Prado Museum, Madrid] 4 [Pieter Coecke van Aelst circa 1547, The Prado, Madrid] 5 [Pieter Huys circa 1547, The Louvre, Paris] 6 [Jan Wellens de Cock 1521, National Gallery of Art, Washington] 7 [Paul Veronese circa 1553, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Caen] 8 [a follower of Pieter Brueghel the Elder circa 1560, National Gallery Washington] 9 [Pieter Brueghel the Younger circa 1600, Palazzo Spinola di San Luca, Genoa] 10 [Jacques Callot 1635, National Gallery of Art, Washington] 11 [Josse van Craesbeeck circa 1650, Staatliche Kunsthalle, Karlsruhe] 12 [Henri Fantin-Latour circa 1875, National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo] 13 [Paul Cézanne circa 1877, Musée d'Orsay, Paris] 14 [Félicien Rops 1878, Royal Library of Belgium]
The Temptation of St. Martin, no painting so titled, and yet, looking... On the left, a painting placed in the chapel of Burgley House in England [flickr Billy Wilson, link]. At right, a painting by Peter Pietri. Even though the women are heavily clothed, the caption of this vitrail is explicit "The devil uses all his power to tempt him" [St. Martin's Church in Grandville in Champagne]. Even the sharing of the cloak can be understood as a temptation when "the almost naked poor man" exposes his young androgynous body completely naked on this tableau by Anton Faistauer [Leopold Museum in Vienna, Austria, flickr Michael Martin].
Dialogue between Martin and Hilaire. [Brunor - Bar 2009] + two boards : 1 2
+ plank showing Martin at Ligugé [Fagot, Mestrallet - d'Esme 1996]
On the left, in 350, Hilaire was elected bishop of Poitiers. In the center, in 359, Hilary fights Arianism at the Council of Sebacea. At right, allegorical meeting of Martin, dressed as a bishop (after 371), with the one who trained him at Ligugé, Hilaire (died 367). [Saint Hilaire de Montcuq church, link] + tableau depicting Hilaire trampling the Arian dragon [St Hilaire church in Payré, in the Vienne].
Sanctus Hilarius under the dome of the present-day Basilica of Saint Martin in Tours.
Ligugé Abbey, the library and office in the Middle Ages ["The Lady of Ligugé", volume 3 of the series "The Stone Master", texts by Daniel Bardet, drawing by Jean-Marc Stalner, Dargaud 2004] + the plank + photo of the library [flickr Jean Pierre Février]. The courtyard and terrace of the Saint-Martin de Ligugé Abbey and its view from the sky. + engraving [Lecoy 1881] + the book "Saint Martin and his monastery of Ligugé," 1873, by François Chamard, 415 pages [Gallica] + photo with commentary of the crypt (link) + another photo of the crypt and photo of a tombstone ["St. Martin of Tours, 16th centenary" 1996]] + flyer about St. Martin de Ligugé Church.
In Ravenna, Martin is the first of the saints. By 402, Ravenna had replaced Rome as capital of the Western Roman Empire. After its fall in 476, it became the capital of Odoacre's kingdom of Italy, and then from 493, that of the kingdom of the Ostrogoths ruled by Theodoric the Great (455-526), of Arian religion, before being taken by the Eastern Empire general Narses (478-573) in 552. This mosaic from the basilica of St. Apollinaris the Ninth, built by Theodoric, dates to 560 / 570. It shows a procession of saints. Martin is the first of them in honorary purple robes, followed by Clement, Sixtus, Laurent, Hippolytus, Apollinaire and the Twelve Apostles [flickr photos Nick Thompson]. This first place is explained by the desire to extirpate the Arian heresy rooted in this city by venerating the one who best fought it. + three overviews of the fresco : 1 (lien) 2 (link) 3 [flickr Marie-Hélène Cingal] + a figuration of Martin in a snapshot [Maupoix 2018]. This mosaic shows us the oldest known representation of Martin. His strong influence in Italy can also be seen in the mosaic of Torcello [commentary by Michel Maupoix, Maupoix 2018].
Evolution of the city of Tours 1/7 : Turonorum, Caesarodunum and Turonis. Caesorodunum, was established in the 1st century AD as the capital of the Turons / Turones (named after Celts probably from the vicinity of Thuringia who arrived in the 4th century BC). It had a large amphitheater, a remarkable round temple, a 25 km underground canalized aqueduct (+ article by Cyril Driard, Ta&m 2007), a bridge over the Loire (+ article by Jacques Seigne and Patrick Neury, Ta&m 2007).
Did Tours exist before Caesarodunum? The city of Turons located around a hill (dunum means hill in Gallic) has been referred to by several names : Caesarodunum (Caesar's hill) / Turonis (this is what Sulpice Severus and therefore Martin called it) / urbs Turonum / Tours... This table lists all the Latin names of the city [Ta&m 2007 page 282). Missing is what was probably the first mention, found in an underground in the Museum of Fine Arts:photo (link) + another photo (link). This is the inscription "Civitas Turonorum libera" saying that Tours is a free city. + explanatory [Alain Ferdière, Ta&m 2007]. This inscription is generally dated to about 50, and even earlier in the reign of Tiberius, from 14 to 37. Its translation (Turonorum being a generative plural) is "The free city of the Turons." Since the reuse of "civitas Turonorum" is attested in the 5th century, this designation was probably continuously used from the 1st to the 5th. The name Tours / Turonorum would therefore be at least as old as Caesarodunum. Hence these questions: did Tours, under a close name (Turonos in Gallic ?) pre-exist Caesarodunum ? Is Caesarodunum only an administrative designation of appearance covering temporarily that of Tours ? It is known that before the Roman occupation, the area was occupied by a Gallic settlement (article by Raphael de Filippo Ta&m 2007). However, the capital of the Turons then seemed to be Amboise / Ambacia, the Romans would have imposed a new place, more to their liking. On this subject, read the interview with Pierre Audin in an article in the Mag. Touraine 2010 #114 : 1 2.
On the left, rendering of the round temple and on the right, rendering of the ramparts [Ta&m 2007). In the center, Tours, capital of the Lyonnaise Third + map of the dioceses.
The ramparts of Tours 1/5: the Gallic enclosure. At that time Egypt was not Egyptian-Roman, Spain was not Spanish-Roman and Gaul was not Gallo-Roman, it was Gallic. It was indeed the Gauls who built the first city walls, those that Martin crossed many times. They did not need the advice of the Romans, even if they relied, in the south, on a monument imported by the Romans, the amphitheater, even if it was designated by the Roman word of castrum (it is probable that it was also named by a Gallic word).
+ other plan of Tours circa 400 (link).
+ article by Jacques Seigne "The fortification of the city in the Late Empire, from the amphitheater-fortress to the castrum"
+ restitution (with commentary on the evolution of the equipment of Gallic and Roman soldiers) and reasons (to protect themselves from barbarian raids) by Cossu-Delaunay 2020. It seems likely that the construction of the 2nd bridge, judiciously placed, and the abandonment, or even destruction, of the first bridge accompanied the building of the enclosure.
Martin crowned by his god, detail of an 11th century fresco in the Charlemagne tower of the Hervé basilica (one guesses a hand holding a crown on his head) [Lelong 1986, photo Collon-Arsicaud). In the 21st century, from the top of his Laloux basilica, Martin watches over the city of Tours and its diocese, of which he was the second bishop in the 4th century. + another photo from 2018, also taken from the top of the Charlemagne tower + postcard.
Objects that Martin may have known. They were found in Tours and are presented in Pierre Audin's book "Tours à l'époque gallo-romaine", editions Alain Sutton 2002. They are, for the most part, in the SAT collection. Below is a bronze mirror found on Albert Thomas Street around 1884.
A subterfuge by the Tourangeaux to lure Martin. 1) Martin did not want to be a bishop [Jean-Bruno Gassies, 1827, Collegiate Church of St. Martin of Colmar, "The Legend of St. Martin in the 19th Century" 1997]. 2) In order for him to come to Tours, an inhabitant, Rusticius / Ruricius, used the pretext that his wife was ill and asked to be helped [Couillard - Tanter 1986 + three pages on Martin's life in and around Tours : 1 2 3]. 3) He then implored Martin to forgive him... [Karl Girardet, engraving by Adolphe Gusmand, LTh&m 1855]. + same scene [Gobelins tapestry, Maupoix 2018].
Clergymen greeted Martin with deference upon his arrival in Tours [Gebhard Fugel, 1910, Germany, Wikipedia], but others showed strong opposition [Nikto - Kline 1987] + the two plates : 1 2.
Defensor, the bishop of Angers, and other prelates and notables opposed the election of Martin... [Brunor - Bar 2009]
(+ two boards : 1 2) + The same scene by Maric - Frisano 1994 : 1 2 and board of BD Utrecht 2016.
Riot at Turonis ! Another look at this election of Martin to the bishopric of Tours by John Loguevel in this page :
"As with St. Ambroise in Milan, this election was held in a climate close to riot, and despite the opposition of
Gallic-Roman nobles". This is illustrated, above, in the comic strip by Proust - Martin, Froissard 1996 + two plates : 1 2
Martin is ordained bishop, the jubilant crowd on the left, the contrite bishops on the right [stained glass window in the church of La Translation de Saint Martin in La Chapelle sur Loire, Touraine, Amand Clément 1892]. + the same ordination on a miniature of sacramentary 1180 [BmT], on a painting of an altarpiece [musée de los Caminos in the episcopal palace of Astorga, Spain, flickr Santiago Abella], On a miniature of Jeanne de Montbaston [caption circa 1330, BnF] And on three stained glass windows: 1 [circa 1315, church of Anctoville sur Bosq in Normandy, link] 2 [Olivier Durieux 1873 workshop in Reims, St Martin de Wimy church in Aisne, flickr Patrick] 3 where God is likened to the alpha and omega [1925, Grenoble workshop of Louis Balmet, church in Tournon Saint Martin in Indre, link]. .
Martin obtains the release of the prisoners of the governor / count of Tours Avitianus / Avitian (mistakenly named Aretian) [Maric - Frisano 1994] + two plates : 1 2. + the same scene in three plates by Proust - Martin, Froissard 1996 : 1 2 3
Martin prefers to get away from the city. [Proust - Martin, Froissard 1996] + three plates showing Martin's arrival in Tours and Marmoutier : 1 2 3. At right, illustration from Gebhard Fugel 1910.
Martin at Marmoutier [Maric - Frisano 1994].
Left plan: Marmoutier is about 2 km from the city of Tours, with direct access [diagram by Charles Lelong 1989, with the addition of the wooden bridge presented in the previous chapter]. In the center the cave known as "Le repos de saint Martin", entrance ["Histoire de la Touraine", Pierre Audin 2016] and interior [Fasc. NR 2012] + photo of exterior 1950 + postcard with interior photo. Even though the configuration of the place has changed a lot, Charles Lelong believes that this cave "did indeed shelter Martin's sleep". On the right extract from an Orthodox icon. + vitrail from the church of Saint Martin du Lac, in Burgundy, presenting Martin as a "friend of solitude" [flickr Odile Cognard]. See also Marmoutier 2/3 3/3.
Martin and Sulpice in Proust - Martin, Froissard 1996 + the plank.
The same in BD Utrecht 2016 by Nico Stolk and Niels Bongers + two boards : 1 2.
The same in the Arte TV movie already featured (here-before). Three recent covers of the "Vita Martini" by Sulpice Severus (illustrations : Anonymous 15th century Budapest, Simone Martini circa 1325 in Assisi (original), Anonymous 12th Cambrai or Tournai).
In 396, in front of the cave at Marmoutier, Sulpice Severus presented the first version of his book to Martin, a year before his death at age 81 [painting by René-Théodore Berthon, 1822, Budapest Museum (in 1904 at Marmoutier), flickr Logan Isaac]. Analyzed in the Catalogue 2016 by Anna Tüskés, this painting is titled "Foundation of the Abbey of Marmoutier by Saint Martin". Martin, located on the right, is said to be consulting the plans for the future Marmoutier Abbey. This is implausible, because on the one hand he did not want to build a monument type abbey there and on the other hand he was dressed humbly like the character on the left. And, this one is 80 years old in 396, while the figure on the right is Sulpice's age, 33. So we have a superb representation of Sulpice showing Martin the first proof of his book. In fact the frame of the painting is reduced, a building is going up on the left and the artist wanted to show an allegory with a builder from a later century, Jean-Baptiste Guizol (1756-1828), showing to a rematerialized Martin the chapel he built on the ruins of the abbey bell tower. But the meeting of Sulpice and Martin is such a powerful symbol...
Testimonials. Here are two examples proving the existence of Martin, outside of the writings of Sulpice Severus and religious writings. 1) It was found in Vienne (on the Rhone) the epitaph of a woman named Foedula buried in the early 5th century which recalls that she had been baptized by "his greatness Martin" [cited by Charles Lelong in 2000, details in the article by Jean Doignon 1961]. 2) Arte's 2016 documentary (see here-above) presents , at Ligugé, a tomb discovered in 1958 with an inscription showing it to be that of a young Visigoth of 10-12 years of age named Ariomeres, a pupil of the master Martin ("domini Martini"). According to a study by Francis Salet in 1961, he would have died in the 5th century, after 419, date of the arrival of the Visigoths, thus at least 20 years after the death of Martin, still considered the master [+ archaeological study by Carol Heitz, 1992].
Martin healing Pauline ["Martinellus" 1110, BmT]. Center-left Paulin in a stained glass window in Linz Cathedral (Austria). Center-right Paulinus preaching [link]. Right sanctus Paulinus in the present basilica extolling the merits of the book of Sulpice Severus [workshop Lorin]. + six other images of Paulin : 1 [calendar by Jacques Callot (1592-1635)] 2 3 4 (with the one who baptized him, Delphin, bishop of Bordeaux from about 380 to 403, corresponding with Sulpice Severus, link) 5 (Paulinus of Nole is said to have initiated the custom of having services announced by ringing bells) 6 [François Verdier, link].
On the left, Sulpice Severus sends (to Paulinus of Nole?) a messenger bearing his book on Martin [BmT, initials ca. 1325]. In the center, Sulpice sees Martin in a dream and then learns of his death [Médiathèque Le Mans, 15th century, Maupoix 2018]. Sulpice had emulators who, over the centuries, wrote a life of St. Martin, such as Richer, abbot of St. Martin of Metz, in the 12th century. On the right, he writes under the inspiration of Sulpice, who presents him with his work [Epinal media library, Maupoix 2018].
At Trier, Valentinian I receives Martin without rising, a soldier warns him that his seat is on fire... On the left, painting by Noël Hallé [Musée des Beaux-Arts d'Orléans, link], on the right stained glass window from the Church of St. Martin in Pau [excerpt from a rose window of 24 scenes on Martin, link]
An original at the emperor's table. Martin was not afraid to trangress the customs, whether Gallic or Roman, of the lower people or the aristocracy. here at his first meeting with the emperor Maximus [Fagot, Mestrallet - d'Esme 1996] + the plank. On the right, the same three protagonists in a miniature of the "Martinellus" 1110 [BmT]. + the same scene in a fresco in the basement of the Tours basilica, see hereafter And in four stained glass windows: 1 [St Martin de Nonancourt church in Normandy] 2 [Maréchal's workshop and Champigneulle, St. Martin's Church of Metz in Lorraine] 3 [church of Romilly sur Seine in the Aube] 4 [church of Sucy en Brie].
In 385, Ithacus / Ithacius, bishop of Ossonoba, tried to convince Martin of the need to condemn Priscillian to death. [Brunor - Bar 2009] + two consecutive plates to this scene : 1 2 + link. This willingness of Martin to separate the affairs of state and church appears modern. Would he be a precursor to the law of 1905 ? Would Martin be a defender of the secularism ? An opponent of the inquisition ?
Fagot, Mestrallet - d'Esme 1996 + two plates : 1 2
The second meeting of Martin and Maxime [Brunor - Bar 2009] + the board.
Two illustrations from the Lecoy 1881: "Saint Martin intercedes for the Priscillianists with the Emperor Maximus"
by Joseph Blanc (+ version vitrail at the collegiate church of Saint Martin in Beaupréau, in Anjou, link),
then comforted by a angel [reproduction of a illustration of the "Martinellus" 1110, BmT].
To the left Priscillian in chains (link). Then, Martin tries to prevent the beheading of Priscillian [painting from the Church of Saint-Martin of Maimbeville]. At right, Ramon Chao's 2004 book estimating that the remains of Priscillian are those attributed to James of Compostela
Ambroise on the same page as Martin. On the left, stained glass window from the church of Saint Augustine in Paris uniting the two saints (Martin on the left). In the center, Ambrose having the revelation of Martin's death, priory of Saint Martin des Champs in Paris, painting by Félix Villé. Right, stained glass window from Bourges Cathedral, 1214, where Ambrose sprinkles holy water on Martin's body [Window 2018]. + two frescoes by Simone Martini in the Saint Martin's Chapel of Assisi on this dream of Ambrose, with narratives by Sulpice Severus and Gilles Berceville in the book "Saint martin of Tours" by Sulpice Severus translated by Jacques Fontaine published by Cerf 2016 : 1 2. + retable with Ambrose surrounded by Martin and Sebastian [Nicolo Corso, fifteenth century, Sabauda gallery in Turin, Italy, flickr jean louis mazieres]
Two excerpts from a very old mosaic in the basilica of St. Ambrose in Milan [Wikipedia photo at center]. On the left, same scene as above center, Ambrose asleep sees Martin's death. On the right he is present at his funeral. This imposing mosaic, the central scene of the Milanese basilica, is here in its watercolor reproduction by Henri Toussaint for the book Lecoy 1881, which presents a accurate analysis of the work. The mosaic there is dated to the ninth, tenth or eleventh century, Wikipedia dates it to the sixth and eighth century, largely reworked in the eighteenth / nineteenth century. We can therefore assume that the themes treated in each scene come from the sixth century. + golden bas-relief at the high altar in the same basilica [9th century, Lecoy 1881].
Sanctus Ambrosius under the dome of the present-day Basilica of Saint Martin in Tours.
Tours and Touraine are at the crossroads of so-called Roman roads but in fact Gallic : "The general opinion that the Romans were the originators of the entire network of ancient roads in Gaul is not accurate" (link Wikipedia). On the left the road system of the Turons, in the center a period road near Tours ["L'Indre et Loire", Pierre Audin, Editions Bordessoules 1982, link]. On the right the table de Peutinger in Touraine ["Caesaroduno" in the center]. + two plates of Couillard - Tanter 1986 : 1 2 + other map (link).
The destruction of the temple of Amboise around 375 (beginning of Martin's episcopate) [Maric - Frisano 1994] + board + heritage interest of this temple [Mag. Touraine n°62, 1997]. The Church of Saint-Denis d'Amboise, perhaps built on the site of this temple, has a vitrail where Martin destroys an idol...
To the left, "Saint Martin Preaching in the Woods of Touraine" by André Beauchant (1873-1958) (document, page 64) [MBAT]. On the right painting by Félix Villé (1819-1907) [Church of Saint Martin des Champs in Paris (link)] + on the same theme a tableau [Anonymous 17th century, Tours Cathedral, Maupoix 2018], a carved table of undetermined origin (link) And four stained glass windows: 1 [church of Trémeheuc in Brittany] 2 [church of St Martin d'Olivet in Orléans (link) 3 [church in Acigné, near Rennes (link) 4 [Beverley Minster Church in England, flickr Gordon Plumb]. For this task, Martin is obeyed by the monks of Marmoutier, as shown in this vitrail from the church of St. Martin in Wimy in the Aisne [Nguyen DoDuc]. + image 20th century showing St. Martin and the role of monks and priests in leading the population. Below, stained glass window from the church of St. Martin de Ligugé [Maupoix 2018].
To the left, after a violent storm calmed by Martin, a fountain springs up to wash his wounds [Saint Martin's Church of The White Chapel Saint Martin, Lobin workshop 1900/1912, link). On the right resurrection of a child [Saint Martin's Church in Marcilly en Gault, stained glass window by Julien Fournier 1895, link] + vitrail from the church of Saint Martin du Lac, in Burgundy, featuring Martin as the "apostle of the countryside" [flickr Odile Cognard].
Exterior and interior of St. Laurent de Veigné Chapel, right chevet and holy spring.
+ three photos : 1 (the spring, behind the chapel) 2 (between sequoia and weeping willow) 3 (photo by Sylvie Clochard, May, 2021, P.-S.) . In many places in Touraine and elsewhere, the passage of Saint Martin, the original Martinus or a devoted continuator, is bathed in a hall of mystery, reinforced by the charm of the old stones. It is difficult to decide, let's take this example.
With a background of Roman statue destruction, Martin evangelizes both the city dweller of Tours and the rural man of Touraine [Luc-Olivier Merson, Lecoy 1881, frontispiece]. At right, Martin preaches light and pushes back darkness [1987, church in Dolni Loucky in the Czech Republic, link].
On the left, Martin, like an officer, gives instructions to his followers at Marmoutier [Maric - Frisano 1994]. On the right, after his death, he is shown as an example by a new evangelist [Master Francis 1460, BnF] + vitrail of a preach of Martin [St. Martin's Church in Lure in Burgundy] + still with the only spiritual presence of Martin, this tableau showing a preaching of St Martin at Siena in Italy [Sano di Pietro, LM 20018].
The death of Martin at Candes on November 8, 397. At left, vitrail by Lux Fournier 1955 [church in Beaumont la Ronce in Touraine, Verrière 2018]. On the right box of Maric - Frisano 1994 + two boards : 1 2 + plank of Proust - Martin, Froissard 1996. + engraving [LTa&m 1845] + engraving on a drawing by Jacques-Emile Lafon [Lecoy 1881]. + two frescoes : 1 Simone Martini in the Chapel of St. Martin in Assisi, circa 1325 2 Johannes Aquila 1392 in the church of Martjanci in Slovenia (link). + seven paintings : 1 [Fidelis Schabet 1846 in the church of St. Martin in Unteressendorf, Germany, Wikimedia] 2 [István Dorfmeister, Hungary] 3 [Gebhard Fugel, 1910, Germany, Wikipedia] 4 [anonymous French 18th century] 5 [abbaye Notre Dame d'Evron in Mayenne, flickr Logan Isaac] 6 [16th century, Master of St Lazarus, Valencia] 7 [musée de los Caminos in the episcopal palace of Astorga in Spain, flickr Santiago Abella] + six stained glass windows : 1 Church of St. Martin the Great in York, Great Britain, 1437 [flickr Lawrence OP] 2 Church of St Martin in Vendhuile in Picardy (link) 3 [St Martin's Church in Ammerschwihr in Alsace] 4 [Olivier Durieux 1873 workshop in Reims, St Martin de Wimy church in Aisne, flickr Patrick] 5 [St Denis d'Amboise church, Lobin workshop circa 1870, Verriere 2018] 6 church in Metz, Lorraine [Maréchal workshop and Champigneulle, Nguyen DoDuc]. + two illustrations from Semur 2015 : 1 (stained glass window in the church of St. Etienne in Chinon, Lobin workshop (+ its double very close by in the church of St. Patrice, in Touraine, link) 2 (banner from the church of Saint Martin de Landivy in Mayenne).
To the left, Martin's body being evacuated through a window [Proust - Martin, Froissard 1996] + the last two plates: : 1 2. + the same scene in a engraving depicting a vitrail from Candes [Lecoy 1881, after a drawing by Claudius Lavergne]. Right return of the body to Tours by the Loire, engraving by Luc-Olivier Merson [Lecoy 1881 + sketch, Musée de Moulins] + fresco of the same boat, from the rear angle, by Gebhard Fugel 1910 (Germany) [Wikipedia]. + engraving [LTh&m 1855]. In the center the evacuation and return [sacramental lettering 1180 BmT] + its engraving in Lecoy 1881 + two stained glass windows : 1 [cath. Chartres, flickr Paco Barranco] 2 [church St Martin de Fresnay, Normandy, link].
Photos of the Collegiate Church of Candes (link left photo) + page on Candes + photo in side view + photo in aerial view + six photos of the sets : 1 2 3 4 5 6 + engraving 19th century with a "Loire River steamer" in the foreground ["History of Touraine" Pierre Leveel 1988] + three engravings LTh&m 1855 : 1 2 3 + three more prints : 1 [Lecoy 1881] 2 [Robida 1892] 3 [Bedel 1835] + one page from Magazine de la Touraine #63 (1997) showing that the collegiate church was a fortress church. + four illustrations from the thesis by Claude Boissenot 2011 (699 pages, 22 MB) : 1 2 3. + extract from a flyer introducing the collegiate church. Opposite stained glass window from Claudius Lavergne 1860.
Where Martin would have died...
Left and right, woodcuts. A pagan idol is decapitated [17th century, link], a sacred tree is cut down (link). In the center, stained glass window made in 2003 by Norbert Pagé (1938-2012) in the church of Saint-Martin in Marcé-sur-Esves featuring "Martin evangelizing the countryside by burning the temples of the false gods" (link). + tableau by Franz Anton Zeiller 1753 in St. Martin's Church in Sachsenried, Germany (link) + scene formerly embroidered in the Basilica of Saint Martin in Liege, 14th century. .
This beautiful stained glass window (Lobin workshop, 1904) from the church of La Chapelle Blanche Saint Martin (in Touraine) exalts the destruction of a beautiful temple and a beautiful tree with the encouragement of gentle little warrior angels... (links : 1 2). On the pediment of the temple being demolished the inscription Tarvos Trigaranos refers to a Celtic/Gaulic god, represented by a bull accompanied by three cranes (+ modele of the image of the pediment, link).
Vitré (Ile et Vilaine) (link).
Condat sur Trincou (Dordogne), 2nd century (link)
Origin unknown (link)
Destruction of a Temple of Jupiter [Luc-Olivier Merson, Lecoy 1881] (the author was inspired by the statue of Zeus / Olympian Jupiter by Phidias, illustrated in 1815 by Quatremère de Quincy). + on the same theme, illustration of undetermined origin (link), + picture of Felix Villé in the church of Saint Martin des Champs in Paris, + vitrail from the church of Noyers sur Cher, Loir et Cher [Julien Fournier 1886, Geneste 2018]. + two stained glass windows of temple destruction : 1 [Romilly sur Seine in the Aube] 2 [Nonancourt, in Normandy].
On the left, Saint Martin orders pagans to cut down a sacred tree [sacramentary of the Basilica of Saint Martin, circa 1180, BmT, Histoire de la Touraine by Pierre Audin [Le Geste, 2016)]. In the center, the tree dedicated to Cybele has fallen on the peasants, who lie stunned. The one on the ground armed with a sword, showed the violent opposition to Martin's evangelization. [vitrail from Chartres Cathedral, link]. + four other stained glass windows : 1 Angers Cathedral [Maupoix 2018] 2 church of Varennes in Ile de France [Musée de Cluny in Paris, Catalogue 2016] 3 church of St Martin de Chagny in Burgundy [flickr Odile Cognard] 4 church of St Martin de Ammerschwihr in Alsace [Nguyen DoDuc]. On the right, Martin imagines demons to eradicate Gallic beliefs [Fagot, Mestrallet - d'Esme 1996]. + The same "pine miracle" on a tympanum of the Basilica of St Martin d'Ainay in Lyon, on a chapel 1120 of the basilica of Vézelay in the Yonne [Lorincz 2001], on a table by Franz Anton Zeiller 1743 [library of the abbey of Pannonhalma in Hungary Lorincz 2001], on a paper from the Angers cathedral treasury and on a reliquary from the abbey of Maredsous in Belgium (link)
The Resurrection of the Catechumen. On the left the scene in a 13th century stained glass window in the Cathedral of Saint Gatien in Tours (bay #4) (the close-up is superb) + its copy by Lucien-Léppold Lobin, 600 years later (1873) for the church in Rigny-Ussé in Touraine [Verriere 2018]. At center, "Saint Martin Resurrects a Catechumen" by Félix Villé, Church of Saint Martin des Champs, Paris (link). At right, stained glass window by Auguste Labouret [Saint Martin de Ligugé Church, link]. + tableau in apotheosis by Godfried Maes [1687, church St. Martin's of Aalst, in Belgium] + fresco by Paul and Albert Lemasson, 1925, in the church of Saint Martin du Cellier (link) + three stained glass windows : 1 [Amand Clément, church of Continvoir in Touraine, Gallery 2018] 2 [Louis-Victor Gesta in the Church of Saint Martin de Biscarosse, link] 3 [St. Martin the Great Church in the city of York, England, flickr Gordon Plumb].
From 370, the miracles of Martin had a great repercussion in Poitiers and beyond, as far as Tours... + board [Maric - Frisano 1994] and another plank from the same authors recounting five miracles.
Martin and the Birds. The range of Martin's miracles is broad and goes far beyond healings. Here is an example, left in the church of Saint Martin des Champs in Paris, a drawing by Felix Villé (link). "Peasants, who derived their livelihood mainly from fishing in a lake, saw a large number of birds flocking to the lake, catching fish without stopping and piling them up in their crop. Fearing the loss of their resources, these farmers called upon Saint Martin. When he came to the lake, he explained to the crowd that these birds were the image of the devil. They set their trap for the unwary, capture them and devour their victims, without being able to satiate themselves. Only prayer and absolute trust in God can overcome them. At the end of his exhortation, St. Martin, making the sign of the cross, commanded the birds to leave the place and never return, which they did immediately." Were there fishing martins ? On the right the same scene by Luc-Olivier Merson ["Saint Martin" Lecoy 1881]. + vitrail 1900 from the church of Saint Martin le Hébert, in Normandy [Edouard Didron] + Icelandic embroidery, detail, circa 1400 [Musée du Louvre, Collective 2019]. There were other miracles involving animals, such as one in which Martin drives the demon out of an angry cow (reproduction of a tapestry, Louvre Museum, Lecoy 1881) or that of the baggage-carrying bear (article from Fasc. NR 2012).
The Healing of the Sick is a great classic of the lives of the saints and Martin knows how to do it. At left, panel from the workshop of the Master of Janosret 1483 [retable 1483 from the church of Csereny / Cerenany in Slovakia with Martin, John the Evangelist, and Nicholas in the center, Hungarian National Museum in Budapest, flickr Rex Harris]. In the center, painting by Johann Lucas Kracher 1770 [St. Martin's Church in Tiszapuspoki, Hungary, Lorincz 2001]. + another tableau [1605, Verona, Italy, Zeno Donise, link]. At right, a sculpture from the Church of St. Martin in the Bull Ring in Birmingham, England [flickr Glass Angel]. + five stained glass windows : 1 [St Martin de Sucy en Brie] church 2 [St Martin de Wimy church in Aisne] 3 [St Martin's Church in Metz] 4 [Church of St. Martin of Colmar in Alsace] 5 healing of a paralytic in Trier to the amazement of witnesses [Chartres Cathedral, flickr Paco Barranco]. In most of these illustrations, the pomp of Martin's clothing appears unseemly, in contrast to its simplicity in the two previous illustrations by Villé and Merson.
At left, "Saint Martin and the Leper of Paris" by Joseph Blanc [Lecoy 1881].
[Fagot, Mestrallet - d'Esme 1996]. Martin would also have rescued a young man : tableau by Sébastien Bourdon [Changeux collection, Paris, LM 2008-2].
Saint Martin among the Orthodox and Protestant Lutherans. As a saint of the Orthodox Church, Martin enjoys a hymnal acathist, a song of thanksgiving with an iconic representation. On the left the icon corresponding to this acathist [French Orthodox parish, rue Saint Victor, Paris Vème]. Then another icon, made by Alain Chenal 1995, with his presentation (link) + fourteen others : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 [Louise Marie Rosseli] 9 10 11 with comment (link) 12 [Silouan Father from New York, flickr Jim Forest, link] 13 (link) 14 [Monique Roumy, link]. + wall bearing icons in the (Catholic) church of Saint Martin d'Ardentes in Indre [La NR 2018]. St. Martin also gives his name to Protestant German churches, whether this appointment is prior to the birth of Protestantism or later. More to the right statues (from 1984) at St. Martin's Church (Martinskirche) in Sindelfinge and a stained glass window at St. Martin's Church in Bonn. + stained glass window by Edouard Hosch on a design by Ernest Biéler 1900 in the St. Martin's Church in Vevey, Switzerland [Wikipedia] + image of Martin, by Theophilia, in the church St. Martin de Louiville in the USA (Kentucky), on a Lutheran website (link).
Luther, father of Protestantism, was named Martin. He was named and baptized on November 11 (1483), the day after his birth, in honor of the Touraine bishop + the plank. Then there was a Martin Luther King, but he was born in January (1929)...
At left, Martin buys slaves to free them [church in Sorigny in Touraine, Lobin workshop, link]. In the center, Martin delivers a demoniac, the slave of Tetradius, who watches the scene from above [Jacques Jordaens 1630 [Brussels Museum] + four variants : 1 [National Gallery of Art, Washington, link] 2 (link) 3 [Bristish museum] 4 (sketch). + resume in engraving [Lecoy 1881].
Martin's hallucinations. Alongside the miracles that may have a basis in real life, Martin can be seen as performing a religious transcription of his dreams when he announces that he occasionally meets the saints Peter and Paul and the virgin Mary surrounded by Saint Agne and St. Thecla (summary of the episode, link). On the left, painting by Eustache le Sueur [1654, Musée du Louvre]. On the right, fresco by Félix Villé [1897, Notre Dame des Champs church in Paris, flickr P.K.]. + stained-glass windows of Thecla, Mary, and Agnes in the Basilica of St. Martin in Tours [Lorin workshop 1900, link].
Scene 1: Charity of Tours. On the left, box from Proust - Martin, Froissard 1996 + two plates : 1 2 (without the miracle of the fire globe) + the same scene in tapering [collégiale Saint Martin de Montpezat de Quercy, flickr apaillous]. In the center, painting of the church of St. Martin de Souvigny en Sologne [1629, Collective 2019] + photo in its environment. + the report that Sulpice Severus makes of it in his "Dialogues" (these are writings subsequent to the Vita Martini)
Scene 2: the miracle of the globe of fire above Martin's head. At left, painting "The Mass of St. Martin" by Eustache le Sueur [flickr Ondra Havala]. This painting and the one by the same painter shown a bit above, both now in the Louvre Museum in Paris, were painted, circa 1654, for the Abbey of Marmoutier (link). At center, "The Mass of St. Martin," 18th-century painting [abbaye St. Martin de Mondaye (Calvados), Maupoix 2018]. At right, stained glass window by Max-Ingrand, circa 1960, in the church of St. Symphorien in Azay le Rideau [Verrière 2018].
[Maric - Frisano 1994] + the plank.
1) polychrome terracotta (height 38 cm), collégiale St Martin de Trôo (Loir et Cher) circa 1600 [Catalogue 2016] (P.S.: on site and vitrail) 2) Statuettes from churches in the greater Paris area (link) + another board with four statuettes. 3) Statue from the town of Twello in the Netherlands [flickr photo Willem Alink]. 4) tympanum of the Church St Martin de Villers-sur-Mer, Calvados.
Low, mid-height or high... On the left statue in SaintMartinville in Louisiana, USA [LM 2008-2]. In the center statue in the city of Nagymaros in Hungary (link + other view) On the right, statue of the Cathedral of Liege in Belgium [flickr Live From Liege + view from below, photo by Jean-Pol Grandmont]. + six other statues : 1 in Hungary, vandalized (the butt on the ground), article 2 in Dugo Selo in Croatia [LM 2007-2] 3 in Arlon in Belgium, where, in duplicate, the bishop builder shares his mantle [LM 2007-2] 4 on a fountain in the monastery of St. Martin de l'Escalier in Palermo, Italy [LM 2007-3] 5 in Lerné in Touraine [Semur 2015] 6 [François Alfred Grevenich, Church of the Madeleine in Paris, link).
Vault Keys. Above, at the Church of St. Martin of Tours in Salamanca in Spain [flickr ctj71081 + gros-plan, flickr Lawrence OP]. Here are four more : 1 [collégiale St Martin de Colmar, link] 2 [Church of St. Martin in Groningen in the Netherlands, flickr groenling] 3 St Martin the Great Church in the city of York, England (link) 4 church of St Martin de Vendôme [16th century, Lecoy 1881].
Embroideries: the Processional Banners. this page features other types of embroidery, including hangings and tapestries (see below). we focus here on parish banners, of which there are many, since there are many parishes dedicated to Martin. 1) church of Eynsford in England [flickr Jelltex] 2) St Martin's Church in Ménetou-Râtel in the Cher [link] 3) St Martin's Church in Moutiers in Brittany [link]. 4) St Martin's Church in Stamford in England [flickr jmc4] Here are five more : 1 [St Martin de Neuvy en Dunois church in Eure et Loir, Catalogue 2016] 2 [Szombately Cathedral in Hungary, link] 3 [St Martin de Beuvron en Auge church in Normandy, flickr Barnie76] 4 [St Martin's Church in Nàdasd in Hungary, LM 2008-1] 5 [St. Martin's Church in Nagymaros in Hungary, LM 2009-1]. And five more in Touraine : 1 Tournon Saint Martin 2 Charnizay 3 La Chapelle Blanche Saint Martin 4 Men 5 Cangey (link). And two banner pages in the Semur 2015 : 1 2 . Much rarer is a bishop's cope, that of Bishop Rumeau, bishop of Angers in the late nineteenth century [Semur 2015].
One of many stained glass windows on this page. Dated 1912 or shortly thereafter, it adorns St. Dunstan's Church in Lytchett Minster in England [flickr Michael Day] + view overall. + fifteen other stained glass windows on the mantle division otherwise (church provenance unless noted, general provenance from Nguyen DoDuc site) : 1 basilica of Martina Franca in Italy [flickr Marie-Hélène Cingal + zoom before, flickr Francesco Montuoro] 2 Sacred Heart of Köszeg in Hungary [Lorincz 2001] 3 St Martin de Colmar Collegiate Church in Alsace 4 St Martin de Montigny le Bretonneux in Ile de Fance 5 Cormatin in Bourgogne 6 Louvre Museum in Paris 7 St Martin de Sartrouville in Ile de Fance 8 Dol de Bretagne Cathedral 9 château du Haut-Koenigsbourg in Orschwiller in Alsace 10 Sondernach in Alsace 11 musée de Cluny in Paris 12 Tigy in Orléans 13 Chanzeaux in Anjou 14 St. Patrick's Basilica in Montreal in Quebec 15 St Martin de l'Isle Adam in Ile de Fance + three stained glass windows on Martin bishop : 1 church of St. Martin de Nouans les Fontaines [Verri 2018] 2 St. Denis d'Amboise Church [Verriere 2018] 3 church of St Benoît du Lac in Quebec + two stained glass windows on Martin soldier : 1 church of Brienon sur Armençon in Burgundy 2 basilica of Domremy in Lorraine.
From retables especially in Spain and Germany. 1) basilica of St. Martin and St. Mary of Treviglio in Italy [Barnardo Zenalo and Barnardino Butinone, flickr dvdbramhall + overview] 2) Martin surrounded by John the Evangelist and Sebastian [Bartolomeo Vivarini 15th century, Carrara Academy in Italy, flickr raffaele pagani] 3) church of Xanten in Germany [flickr groenlig] 4) church of St. Martin ofArtieda in Spain (link). Eight other altarpieces or polyptics, painted and/or in relief : 1 (Saint Martin d'Hauteville-Gondon church in Bourg Saint Maurice in Savoie, link) 2 Valencia in Spain, early 16th century [Musée de Cluny in Paris, flickr Yann.O] 3 St. Martin's Chapel in Bürgstadt in Germany, next to a statue [flickr pitpix2010] 4 Retables Museum (former St. Esteban Church) in Burgos in Spain [flickr Santiago Abella] 5 Martin, Jerome and Sebastian [Jaume Ferrer circa 1450, Barcelona Museum, flickr Michael Martin] 6 Martin on the right, St. Blaise on the left [doors of the medieval church of North Crawley in England, flickr Lawrence OP]. More altarpieces and painted panels can be found in the next chapter 7 Lutheran Church in Marburg in Germany [Collective 2019] 8 altarpiece panel from the Diocesan Museum in Rottenburg, Germany [Maupoix 2018]. Continuation of the altarpieces and panels in the next chapter hereafter.
Miniatures of mantle sharing.... There are a lot of thumbnails on this page. Here is a supplement regarding the sharing of the mantle, unless otherwise noted "bishop". Above, illumination from the BnF (Latin call number 920, fol. 300v). And six miniatures from The Pierpont Morgan Library museum in New York (link) : 1 psalter from Gand in Belgium circa 1280 2 book of hours from Nantes circa 1445 [Master of Jeanne de Lavel]. 3 Book of Hours from Angers circa 1470 [Jean Colombe, Michel's brother] 4 book of hours from Tours circa 1520 [Master of Claude de France] 5 ditto (bishop). 6 sacramentary of Mont Saint Michel circa 1065 (bishop). + eleven other miniatures : 1 British Library manuscript [Maupoix 2018] 2 lettrine from the "Life and Miracles of St. Martin of Tours" [early 13th century BnF, Maupoix 2018]. 3 missal for the use of Tours commissioned by Simon Renoulph archbishop of Tours from 1363 to 1379 [BmT, Catalogue 2016] 4 collection of twelfth-century writings on parchment [Bibliothèque Ste Geneviève de Paris, Catalogue 2016] 5 captioned circa 1330 by various artists including Jeanne de Montbaston [BnF, Catalogue 2016] 6 Book of Hours for the Use of Rome, illuminations by the Master of the Scandalous Chronicle (the Master of Martainville and three other anonymous Touraine illuminators also worked on the miniatures) [BmT, Catalogue 2016] 7 [Macon Library, 1997 Symposium SAT] 8 psalter said to be by Lambert the stammerer, ca. 1290 [Liège Library, Colloquium 1997 SAT] 9 "Horae beatae Mariae virginis," Paris 1515 [Harvard University] 10 Belleville Breviary, Jean Pucelle 1326 [BnF, Gallica] 11 festive gradual for the use of Notre Dame la Riche of Tours adapted for use in Amiens [Bibl. d'Amiens, Catalogue 2016]. And multi-scene thumbnails in the next chapter hereafter.
And more frescoes... Painted plaster, once in the St. Martin de Tours museum, from the Charlemagne tower + two original photos : 1 [Lelong 1986] 2 (P.-S.) [Arsicaud, archives dép. 37] + another fresco on the bishop of Tours, in the church of Saint Martin d'en Haut near Lyon (link). Also churches decorated with frescoes this-following and painted facade frescoes this-front.
And a few more paintings and pictures about sharing the mantle... In addition to the numerous ones scattered along this page, here above is a close-up of an1836 painting by Alfred Rethel, genius artist gone mad (short bio, link) [Hamburg in Germany, flickr Amber Tree]. and here are fifteen other paintings, attached to the sharing of the coat: 1 Church of St. Martin in Leobersdorf in Austria [Johann Nepomuk Höfel, flickr Josef Lex] 2 Ligugé [flickr Marie-Hélène Cingal] 3 Pilgrims' Museum in Santiago de Compostela in Spain [flickr Josercid] 4 Church of Saint Germain l'Auxerrois in Paris [flickr Anne L] 5 an effeminate Martin of Peruvian origin [school of Cuzco] 6 painting of a sculpture [Master of Affligem Abbey 1475, Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium in Brussels, flickr PepBear] 7 a painting, banner and statue in the church of St. Martin in Kraichtal-Landshausen in Germany [flickr pitpix2010] 8 anonymous 18th century [National Museum of Art of Bolivia, LM 2006-1] 9 [National Gallery of Hungary, Budapest, Lorincz 2001] 10 [St. Martin's Church of Szombathely, Hongris, Lorincz 2001] 11 [Csaba Toth, property of the artist, Lorincz 2001] 12 [Spanish origin, late 15th century, Bonnat Museum, Bayonne, [Maupoix 2018] 13 [Lorenzo di Bicci circa 1385, Florence in Italy, Catalogue 2016] 14 Leo Schnug 1906 with Martin looking like Don Quixote [Wikimedia] 15 [Martin Fréminet 1567, Musée du Louvre in Paris, LM 2018].
The life of Martin in a succession of images. The life and miracles of Martin are celebrated in many ways. On the left Icelandic embroidery, between the 14th and 16th centuries, preserved in the Louvre Museum [2.80 m x 2.1 m, link Wikimedia + the scene of the shared coat, Maupoix 2018]. At center a stained glass window from the collegiate church of Candes Saint Martin, circa 1900 [flickr Stephen Shankland]. We've seen other successions of scenes from the life of Martin in bays in the cathedrals of Tours and Chartres and, of course, the Tours basilica, such as this bay from the Lobin workshop. On the right, exhibition in the garden of the Carmel of Tours in September 2019, playful path. + children's drawings in Germany (link).
Collegiate church hangings Saint Martin de Montpezat de Quercy, Lot et Garonne. Originally from Flanders, they were installed in the early 16th century and have always remained in the same place [flickr photo Vaxjo]. Besides the one above the overview, here are eight of the scenes : 1 the devil attacks Martin in his sleep (+gros-plan, flickr Vaxjo) 2 the staircase chute 3 of mantle sharing [Wikimedia], 4 of destruction of a temple and healing of a sick person [flickr Vaxjo), 5 of felling the pine tree [flickr Vaxjo), 6 previously featured from Tetradius, 7 already featured from the second charity. 8 two women chatting during mass [commentary "Les renaissances", Philippe Hamon, Belin 2013]. + another view of set including two painted pictures [flickr Patrick Chabert] + another view of the exterior [flickr Pittou2].
Episodes from the life of Martin in a large stained glass window in the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Chartres. Many stained glass windows feature scenes from the life of Martin (we've already seen, here, the three bays of Tours Cathedral). A bay from Chartres, here in the center, shows about 40 of them. It is remarkable, executed between 1215 and 1275, classified as a historical monument in 1840. A page Wikipedia describes it precisely, with this comment for the illustration on the left showing the ordination at Tours : "Two bishops assist the officiating bishop, who places a gospel on Martin's back : by this he symbolizes that the bishop's charge is to bring the gospel to the people entrusted to him. Martin is in prostration before the altar". On the right, Martin is traveling on his donkey.
Series of miniatures. On this page, illuminations are shown generally in isolation, especially in the previous chapter. Here are two sets. Picked up in part in the four illustrations above, five double miniatures of Master Francis [Historial Mirror, Poitiers 1460 parchment, BnF, link] : 1 2 3 4 5. Four scenes from a fifteenth-century manuscript in the Le Mans library, Louis Aragon media library [Maupoix 2018] : 1 (sharing) 2 (dream) 3 (appearance of the devil) 4 (death) and, already shown, the announcement of Martin's death to Sulpice Severus. See also hereabove the miniatures of the book offered to the King of France in 1496. And a miniature depicting five scenes [Master of Jean Rolin II 1455, The Hours of Simon de Varye, Wikimedia].
Scenes succeeding each other on painted or carved panels, altarpieces..., often altarpieces and polyptics. Like stained glass windows, altarpieces allow for scenes from the life of Martin to be displayed. The one on the left, a tempera painting on wood, of unknown origin, may have come from a workshop in Vic, Catalonia, in the fifteenth century, the author could be Nicolau Verdera. The peculiarity of this altarpiece is to represent another one on the altar at the bottom right (1.80 m high, link). On the right, a painted wooden panel from the twelfth century from Sant Marti in Puigbo in Spain [Episcopal Museum of Vic], with a Christ surrounded by four episodes from the life of Martin + gros-plan [flickr François Chédeville]. Four scenes from the altarpiece by the Master of Riofrio [ca. 1500, oil on wood, gilding with gold leaf, 1.65 m high, Goya Museum in Castres, Maupoix 2018] 1 mantle sharing 2 resurrection of the slave of Lupicin 3 ordination of Martin 4 death of Martin (with reading from a book of illuminations...) + documentation with other panels]. Six other multi-scene panels : 1 altar facing with six scenes in the church of Santa Maria de Palau de Rialb in Catalonia [Lleida school, last quarter of the 13th century, tempera painting on wood, Santiago de Compostela Museum, Spain] 2 altarpiece from the church of Sant Marti Sescorts in Osana, Catalonia, first half of the fifteenth century, 3.7-meter-high tempera painting on wood [The Master of the Anemic Figures, link + four scenes Maupoix 2018) 3 Los Caminos Museum in Astorga in Spain [flickr Santiago Abella + part 2] 4 Museo de Arte de Cataluna (link) 5 the altarpiece in the church of Repentigny, in Normandy, features six scenes explained on this link 6 Altar circa 1520 from Bergkirchede of Sighisoara in Romania [Lorincz 2001].
A life in one picture. In one picture, the sharing of the cloak and the resurrections of the child and the catechumen [Winifred Knights circa 1930, Canterbury Cathedral, England, link] + fresco [St. Martin's Chapel in Szombathely, Hungary, Béla Kontula 1942, Lorincz 2001] + vitrail by Max Ingrand [St. Martin's Church in L'Aigle in Normandy] + vitrail from the church of Viege in Switzerland [Paul Monnier, flickr Jean-Louis Pitteloud] + vitrail of the Church of St. Martin de Worms in Germany [flickr Hen-Magonza]. At right, painting by Egbert Modderman [2017, The Netherlands], as a curtain closes...
Scenes to be discovered in Martin buildings. Before dealing with the four remarkable decorations illustrated above, let us add a fifth, already presented throughout this page (summary in appendix 3), it is the frescoes of Simone Martini in the St. Martin's Chapel in Assisi, Italy, here are two overviews : 1 2 (link).
Let's mention more common examples that show that, outside of cathedrals and other majestic monuments, modest St. Martin's churches can detect, even in small numbers, artistic beauties that often may not relate to Martin. Above, a capital from the church of St. Martin in Landiras in Gironde, which may depict Martin grappling with his demons (+ views). Or some frescoes from the 12th century in the chapel of St Martin de Fenollar, a town in the Pyrénées Orientales (link + views) Let's not forget that such surviving paintings are rare and many frescoes are gone or show only vague traces, as shown in this view [flickr Ellen Bouckaert] of the interior of the church of St. Martin d'Ougy in Burgundy with this part of preserved fresco (link). Reminder : of the (less giant...) frescoes in the previous chapter this-before.
The four comic book albums about Martin of which boxes and plates are present several times on this page. 1) Maric - Frisano 1994 : "Saint Martin", texts Raymond Maric, drawings Pierre Frisano, colors by Marie-Paule Alluard, éditions du Signe 1994, reissued 2016. 2) Proust - Martin, Froissard 1996 : "Martin of Tours," texts Pierre-Yves Proust (see box below), drawing Freddy Martin and Vincent Froissard, editions Glénat and La NR 1996. + back cover. 3) Fagot, Mestrallet - d'Esme 1996 : "The XIIIth Apostle, Martin of Tours", texts Frédéric Fagot and Eric Mestrallet, drawings Lorenzo d'Esme, Fagot de Maurien editions 1996. + back cover. 4) Brunor - Bar 2009 : "Martin, Sharing the Truth", texts Brunor, drawings Dominique Bar, colors Géraldine Gilles, editions Mame-Edifa 2009 + two last pages "What happened to them ?" with the main characters : 1 2.
From Trier to Rome, built in the name of St. Martin.Martin made several trips to Trier, crossing the Porta Nigra as a tourist (as it was not on his way) (left photo circa 1900), to meet with Emperor Maximus. In these places will be founded a St. Martin's Abbey (next photo, Wikipedia). This abbey may have been founded in the 6th century on a church built by Martin in the 4th century. + view of the abbey around 1750. More than 1500 km away, the basilica of Rome Saints Silvester and Martin, first an oratory in the course of the 4th century, was built around 500 and later enlarged. [Wikipedia] On the right is an interior view of the current basilica + view from the outside + view of the interior [Lecoy 1881].
Saint Martin's Cathedrals. Here are five of them : 1) Mayence (Germany) (+ view of interior, flickr Kristobalite), 2) Colmar (France, collegiate church often referred to as "cathedral", located on Cathedral Square) (+ engraving Lecoy 1881 + statue of the central portal of the west facade + view of the interior + link), 3) Utrecht (Netherlands), Protestant since 1580 (+ view of interior, Wikimedia + the cloister, lecoy 1881), 4) Bratislava (Slovakia) (+ view of interior, flickr Harold Stern), 5) Lucques (Italy) [Wikipedia] (+ engraving and reproduction of bas-relief in Lecoy 1881 + page from LM 2007-2) (+ two interior views [flickr mira66] : 1 2).
A multitude of Saint Martin's churches Here is a very short chronological selection of Saint Martin's churches, all in France, listed as historical monuments : 1) Xth century Béthisy Saint Martin (Oise) (+ view of interior), 2) XIIth Gignac (Lot) (+ view of interior), 3) XVIth Moutiers (Ile et Vilaine) (+ view of interior, link), 4) XXth The Cellar (Loire Atlantique) (+ view of interior + fresco by Paul and Albert Lemasson 1925-1932, link). + page with other Saint Martin churches. + the church of St. Martin de Castelnau-Montratier in the Lot department, which bears some external resemblance to the Touraine basilica (link).
Martin and the Architects. There is, of course, no architecture unique to Saint Martin monuments. That is no reason to salute the variety of achievements. Here are four of them. 1) the chapel se Saint Martin le Vieux in the Pyrenees (+ views commented from outside, link), 2) the abbey of Saint Martin aux Bois in Picardy (+ engraving Lecoy 1881) (+ views), 3) the chapel of Saint Martin de Peille, next to Monaco (another link) (+ description), 4) St. Martin's Church in Budapest (link) (+ views). The Saint Martin de Triel sur Seine church has the particularity of having a particularly complex architecture, coming from different periods ; Links : 1 2 3.
Paris and Martin. 1) The port Saint Martin since the 10th century + engraving showing the Saint Martin gate, part of the Charles V enclosure, in the Middle Ages [Lecoy 1881], 2) the priory Saint Martin des Champs since 1135 + article Fasc. NR 2012 + view overview [Charles Fichot, link] + four illustrations by Lecoy 1881 : 1 2 3 4 + other view, 3) the theater at St. Martin's Gate since 1781 (here circa 1790), 4) the channel Saint Martin since 1825 [Wikipedia links and illustrations]. Also a boulevard, street, suburb, market, parking lot, school. 5) Martinus passed through the city of the Gauls Parisii and is said to have cured a leper at its gates (at his gate...), as shown in the illustration to the right ["Martinellus" 1110, BmT]. Tradition has it that this kiss to the leper happened in the rue Saint Martin (an old Roman road) in the vicinity of the present-day church of Saint Nicolas des Champs. + three pages of LM 2017 : 1 2 3.
The Saint Martin bridges of Pont-Saint-Martin in Valle d'Aosta (Italy), of Vienne in Isère and on the Guiers Vif, also in Isère. The first is of Roman origin and it is quite likely that Martin crossed it. It is also possible for the ancient predecessor of the second one. The third one dates from the 18th century, with no antecedent [links and illustrations Wikipedia]. + the Saint Martin's Bridge of Tolède : engraving [Lecoy 1881], photo [Wikipedia].
St. Martin's Basilica in Taal, Philippines, for these four illustrations [photos Ryan Sia, Wikipedia] + links : 1 [The NR] 2 3. Founded in the 16th century, it was rebuilt several times and measures 89 meters long and 48 wide.
Sculpted and painted facades, also the painted spandrels and pediments. For carved tympanums and pediments, see below. Two beautiful church fronts: the Basilica of San Martino in Martina Franca in Italy in Puglia (link + central sculpture, 1753 work of Giuseppe Morgese and his sons) and the church of Sant Marti of Sant Celoni in Catalonia (decorations completed in 1762, link, statue central of Martin made in 1953 by Lluís Montané). Facades can also be painted, as on the left, a house in Wangen im Allgäu in Germany [flickr caminanteK] And like these twelve there, including tympanums and pediments painted : 1 church of St. Martin de Tarbes ["Lettre martinienne" 2006-1] 2 Beuron Abbey in Germany [flickr Meinolf Schumacher] 3 house in Fribourg, Switzerland [flickr Hurni Christoph] 4 church of Tromello in Italy [link + zoom back] 5 house in the same town of Tromello (in Aosta Valley, on the way to Sabaria / Szombathely) 6 church of San Martino Siccomario in Italy [Wikipedia] 7 church of Palestro in Italy [link + zoom back] 8 house in Tropello, Italy [LM 2008-1] 9 building in Pamplona in Spain [LM 2009-1]. 10 Pannonhalma Abbey in Hungary [Semur 2015] 11 St. Martin's Church in St. Martin du Limet [Semur 2015] 12 church of Siccomario in Italy [Semur 2015].
Saint Martin's chapels galore. Sometimes in ruins, thanks to those who restore... 1) Générouillas in the commune of Saint Pardoux le lac in Limousin + description (link). 2) Sunrise in Switzerland, in the hermitage of Verena Gorge [flickr Hurni Christoph]. 3) Chapel St Martin of the commune of Saint Victor la Coste in the Gard + description (link). 4) St. Martin's Chapel of the hermitages del Corb in the Natural Park of the Volcanic Zone of the Garrotxa in Catalonia (link). 5) the chapel of the valley of Saint Martin on the commune of Escles in the Vosges. + ten other chapels St Martin : 1 1750 to 1Sankt Martin in Lower Austria [flickr Alexander Szep] 2 in Glux en Glenne in Burgundy [flickr Rudy Pické] 3 in Castellane in Provence [flickr Rudy Pické] 4 in Haute-Goulaine near Nantes [flickr vebests] 5 chapel St Martin des Champs in Oltingue in Alsace [flickr JV images] 6 in Nijmegen in the Netherlands [flickr Stewie1980] 7 2004 in Saint Martin in Valais, Switzerland [flickr Jean-Louis Pitteloud] 8 Saint Martin de la Roche chapel / Sant Marti de la Roca in the Eastern Pyrenees, flickr Patrick Chabert] 9 chapel of Kobilje in Slovenia [LM 2008-1] 10 2017 in North Tours (link). There are also church and cathedral chapels, such as the one at St Julien de Tours church seen below.
Village Saint Martin. A few houses clustered around a church, villages nestled in nature are visually more appealing than large towns and cities. Here are some of them, with the number of inhabitants in the commune. 1) Saint Martin d'Entraunes in Provence, 130 inhabitants [flickr Gilles Couturier] 2) Saint Martin de Lansuscle in Lozere, 180 inhabitants 3) Saint Martin d'Oydes in Ariège, 220 inhabitants [flickr Dirk Motmans] 4) Saint Martin de Castillon in Provence, 800 inhabitants (link).
The church of Saint Martin in Artaiz, in the Spanish Basque country (population 50), 25 km from Pamplona. It has many beautiful sculptures in Romanesque art. On the right, Martin seems to be pushing away the three-headed Gallic god + views + links : 1 2 3 4 5.
The abbey Saint Martin du Canigou, perched at 1055 m above sea level, in the Eastern Pyrenees, erected in 1101 [photo Sandra di Giusto]. Links : 1 2 3 + view of interior + two engravings Lecoy 1881 : 1 2 + page Wikimedia. At right, illustration of an abbey charter from 1195 ["Feudalities", Florian Mazel, Belin 2010]. The Christ in majesty of the Apocalypse, who has returned to judge the living and the dead, is here surrounded on the left by the Virgin Mary and on the right by Martin.
Do the trees of St. Martin have a pagan origin ? This St. Martin's chestnut tree [ link) at Continvoir, near Bourgueil in Touraine, of which only the stump remains, is said to be the one where Martin preached in 388 [left stained glass window of the church of Saint Martin de Continvoir, Manufacture du Mans 1849, Verrières 2018 + photo in context]. It gave its name to a younger chestnut tree [right, photo by Stephan Bonneau] at the nearby place called "La Blotterie".According to Jean-Mary Couderc, in "Arbres remarquables de Touraine" [Berger Editions 2006, photos by S. Bonneau] :"The tradition of the trees of Saint Martin (at Neuvy le Roi, Neuilly le Brignon and La Roche Clermault according to Rabelais) may be related to the existence of pagan sacred trees (successively replaced) their cult would have long endured and they would have been Christianized by giving them the name of Saint Martin.". In the same way that pagan temples became churches...
Left, box by Albo Helm in BD Utrecht 2016 + the plank in Dutch and, differently, two boards in French : 1 2 (below right). Center, Feast of St. Martin in Peru in Pomahuaca, photo of the 2014 procession (video) + procession in Italy (link) + image Italian gathering of children with lanterns and sharing of the mantle (link). On the right, folards from Dunkirk (link + recipe) In Dunkirk (poster 2008) and in Flanders, the donkey of Saint Martin is celebrated, his master having transformed his droppings into small loaves of bread called folards (another name : crackers, story, link). + poster 2019 in Lembach in Alsace (link) + image German 2016 (link) And three Venetian delicacies : 1 (link) 2 (link) 3 (link). + document about St. Martin's lanterns in Poland + page La NR 2019 on the "bon pain Saint Martin" of the talmeliers of Touraine + page of LM 2008-4 featuring Saint Martin's feasts in Sweden, Germany, Switzerland and Denmark + the sayings of St. Martin's Day [flickr J. M. Gil Puchol].
To the left Marmoutier with above the hillside the vineyard of Clos de Rougemont. + article from "Tours Infos" 2010 titled "The vines of Marmoutier". In the center, sculpture of Martin's donkey pruning the vine, on the collegiate church of Candes [excerpts from panels of the exhibition "Saint Martin, the Vine and Wine" 2016 in the city of Tours]. At right, sculpture in a cave made of tuffeau in Rochecorbon [Le Magazine de la Touraine n°64, 1997]. + tableau "St. Martin's Wine" by Pieter Brueghel the Elder [Prado Museum in Madrid] with comment and two close-ups [flickr jean louis mezieres] : 1 2.
The relics of Martin 1/8: according to the times... Michel Fauquier, in this article from 2019 on the website Aleteia : "With the gradual acceptance by Rome of the Christian religion in its Catholic form, martyrdom had largely faded from the European horizon while, at the same time, churches were flourishing all over Europe, which were in demand of relics of saints to be inserted in altars. Since it was not customary to dismember the bodies of the saints to multiply the number of their relics, the Church was faced with a shortage. However, at the same time, the Catholics found themselves facing violent raids from Germania. [...]Disempowered in the face of these shocks and the threats they carried, Catholics sought even more ardently the protection of the holy bodies this is why the masses immediately adopted the new model of holiness that an author of the late fourth century, Sulpice Severus, had drawn. This model, he had not invented : it had presented itself to him providentially in the person of Martin of Tours, who thus became the first model of modern sanctity, that is, of non-martyral sanctity. [...] If Sulpice Severus lent Martin of Tours the desire for martyrdom, the fact is that the latter did not undergo it, which did not prevent the former from saying " saint " the latter, from the first words of his work, before proclaiming him " apostle of the Gauls " in a later work."
Are stamps other modern relics? With the ubiquitous sharing of the mantle. 1) Germany 1984 2) France 2017 3) France 1960 4) Monaco 1948 5) Czechoslovakia 6) Hungary 2011 7) Luxembourg 1980 + twenty-one other stamps : 1 Belgium 2 Germany 3 Rwanda 1967 (cancelled) 4 Belgium 1941 5 Belgium 1948 6 Belgium 1941 7 Austria 1985 8 France 9 Belgium 1911 10 France 11 Austria 1936 12 Austria 1999 13 Czechoslovakia 1999 14 Austria 15 Germany 16 Hungary 2016 17 Argentina 1968 (link) 18 Hungary 1972 [flickr isa 11] 19 Portugal [flickr quevedodovale] 20 Belgium 1910 21 Germany 2011 [flickr isa 11] + two stamps from Saudi Arabia [LM 2008-2] + page of LM 2006-1 + page of LM 2006-2 + these two pages : 1 2.
On the left, the exorcist Martin expels the demon from the body of a possessed man through his ass [Tours Cathedral, bay #8, Verry 2018]. Then Martin unmasks a trick of the devil ["Martinellus" 1110, BmT] (link + release supplemented and commented on in Lecoy 1881). Then "Appearance of the devil to Saint Martin" [cathedral of Belluno in Veneto]. On the right, the pagan gods are for Martin demons to be slaughtered [church of Saint Martin in Clamecy, Burgundy]. + three other stained glass windows where Martin scares away a demon : 1 [Bourges Cathedral] 2 [Saint Martin de Tours basilica, Lobin workshop, Verriere 2018] 3 [Church of St. Martin de Saussey in Manche, link]. + plank from Maric - Frisano 1994 telling of a meeting of Martin and Satan. Other illustrations about Martin and his demons : below.
Surprise: Martin would have also shared his coat with the devil!. It was the illustrious painter Raphael who drew this smoky scene. This deserved an explanation, provided by Albert Lecoy de la Marche [Lecoy 1881]. On the right, another surprise, it's a horned bishop with hooked feet attacking Martin, on a wall fresco in the church of St. Salvadoor in Pavia, Italy [Semur 2015]
Martin's mother: post-medieval delusion!. In 1572, an illumined man published a kind of ancient science-fiction with as heroine a daughter of a king of Constantinople, the beautiful Helaine, to whom stories happen and who becomes the mother of St. Martin and St. Brice (let's remember that they were born 60 years apart...). This work, of which two editions are known, is titled "Le rommant de la belle Helaine de Constantinople, mère de sainct Martin de Tours en Touraine et de sainct Brice son frère". Illustrations: covers of two editions, close-up of the second, two other images. + Link to a transcript on the site of the Lisieux media library, + three complete editions of about one hundred pages [Gallica] : 1 2 3. Below excerpt from Martin's genealogy composed by Ambroise de Cambray for Louis XI (P.-S.) [archives dep. 37].
[corrected stained glass window from the church in Mosne, Touraine, and poster from the film "Man of steel" 2013]. Whose cape is it?
1 2 3 5 6 8
Four other "Lives of St. Martin". 1) Martin on his donkey, one of the illustrations from the 1496 book shown in the box below. 2) work of the same title, in a popular black-and-white version of about 100 leaves, "The life and miracles of my lord Saint Martin translated from Latin into French" circa 1500, pilgrimage booklet + a double page [BmT, Catalog 2016]. 3) "The Life of St. Martin the Merciful, Bishop of Tours" circa 1700, by Dimitri of Rostov, a saint of the Russian Orthodox Church, presents an Orthodox Christian view of Martin ; here in a 2009 reprint from the "Benedictine Editions. 4)"Saint Martin of Tours," a 1925 Belgian book by Marcellin Lissorgues, a priest from Cantal.
Ernest-Charles Babut (1835-1916): died in the 1914/18 war, like 18 million other victims whom Martin, nor his god, could save. His official given names are Ernest Theodore. He was an associate professor of history.
Martin: hilarious fables ? Photo of this page from 2016 of the site "La Rotative" relying on Babut's work to harshly criticize the municipality of Tours, beginning thus : "On the boulevard that crosses the city from east to west, an exhibition entitled "From Martin to Saint Martin: his life, his legends" is proposed to the gaze of passersby. On red columns stamped "JC Decaux" and "Ville de Tours", one is entitled to a collection of fables that would be hilarious if the city hall did not try to pass them off as truths. Martin healing a possessed man, Martin healing a leper, Martin's relics repelling invaders...". Jacques Fontaine and Bruno Judic are also quoted, almost in support of Babut, for a substantiated article.
Historians and Colloquia. Jacques Fontaine (1922-2015, link), Charles Lelong (1917-2003), Luce Pietri at the 2016 colloquium, collections SAT from the 1997 colloquium (224 and 310 pages)
1) Semur 2015 ("Saint Martin of Tours, European Pioneer of Solidarity", François-Christian Semur, Editions Hugues de Chivré, 232 pages + press kit). 2) Catalog 2016 ("Martin of Tours, the Radiance of the City," Collective, MBAT, Exhibition Catalog of the same title, 288 pages + press kit). 3) Maupoix 2018 ("Saint Martin de Tours, 17 centuries of stories and images", Michel Maupoix, editions "Rencontre avec le patrimoine religieux", 352 pages). 4) Collective 2019 ("Un nouveau Martin, Essor et renouveaux de la figure de saint Martin IVème - XXIème siècle", Collective with introduction by Bruno Judic, Presses Universitaires François Rabelais, 552 pages, including the interventions of the 2016 colloquium, here in 40 videos + link to other videos). On each cover of these works, horse and red cape (on the reverse or obverse) are the marks of a certain conformity... + the four original works used for these four covers : 1 (stained glass window of the collegiate church Saint Martin de Candes) 2 (anonymous and Master Henri, "Livre d'images de madame Marie, Cambrai or Tournai, c. 1285, BnF) 3 (Master of Boucicaut early 15th century [Bibliothèque municipale de Châteauroux]) 4 (Blasco de Granen between 1400 and 1459, Museum of Art of Catalonia in Barcelona) + summaries of these four books, the two previous ones (1997 colloquium), three others by Charles Lelong, and six recent ones on Martin.
Remember: Martin died in Candes and his body was brought back to Tours by the Loire River for burial.
Sculpted chapel in the church of Mura, near Barcelona, where the devil is repelled [flickr Algela Llop].
Martin's body was buried in the parish cemetery of Tours on November 11, 397. It was only 40 years
later that his tomb was placed in a basilica. [Fagot, Mestrallet - d'Esme 1996] + plank. + vitrail from Tours Cathedral (bay 8) showing the entombment + the same scene in a reproduction of a bas-relief from the ninth century church of St. Ambrose in Milan [Lecoy 1881].
The glory of Martin. What happened to Martin after his death? He would have gone to paradise, accompanied by angels, with (right) his helmet, sword and half-cape. Painted vault of the choir of the church of Saint Martin in Montégut-Lauragais (Haute-Garonne), by Bernard Benezet, 1868 (link) [book "La légende de Saint Martin au XIXème siècle" 1997]. + On the same theme, a tableau by Pierre-Adrien-Pascal Lehoux, 1885 [Nantes Museum of Fine Arts, same book], a miniature from the Salisbury Breviary, ca. 1435, "The soul of St. Martin received by God in heaven" [BnF], a vitrail circa 1955 from the church of St. Martin d'Olivet in the Orleanais (link), a fresco, circa 1790, of the Church of St. Martin de Castelnau-d'Estrétefonds in Haute-Garonne, a tableau by Konrad Huber 1810, with cloak and goose [church in Gundelfingen, Germany, link], a tableau by Wolfgang Andreas Heindl circa 1720 [Niederaltaich Abbey also in Germany, link], then, taken from the book Lorincz 2001, four central European paintings with a complex composition, difficult to understand in detail, with in common the ascent to heaven and the presence of the beggar and his half-cape : 1 by Georg Desmarées 1744, Sweden [St. Martin's Church in Kaufbeuren] 2 by Georgius Lederer 1738 [St. Martin's Church, Lemerdingen] 3 by Stefan Dorfmaister 1777, Austria [St. Martin's Cathedral of Eisenstadt] 4 by Franz Anton Maulbertsch 1791, Hungary [Szombathely Cathedral]. Also in Polish book cover.
The baby through whom the scandal comes: the mother is a nun, is the father the bishop ? On the left, Brice in his time as a disciple of Martin [Jeanne de Montbaston, captioner circa 1330, BnF]. At center left, Brice is ordained a bishop [Bourges Cathedral 1214, Verry 2018]. In the center right, Brice attempts to answer the public accusation [Jean le Tavernier, "Legenda aurea," 14th century, Flanders, link]. At right, an oil on canvas by Jean-Daniel Heimlich, 1773, shows Brice facing suspicion of paternity [St. Medard's Church in Boersch in Alsace, Wikipedia]. + photo with frame [Wikipedia].
Brice, Martin's sultry successor, gets better with age [illustrations anonymous, except for right Eliane Mendiburu (link), at Veigné, in Touraine ; statue in Schöppingen, Germany (link)]. + fresco of the Church of Saint Bear in Loches (link + page dedicated) + vitrail circa 1600 from the Norwich Cathedral in England, from Rouen [flickr jmc4]. + Bishop Brice in a tableau from the church of St. Brice in Saint Brice sous Forêt in the Ile de France [Semur 2015].
Florent and Maurille. On the left, Martin receives Florent and ordains him [1524 tapestry, Saint Pierre de Saumur church] + miniature from the Sacramentary of the Basilica of Saint Martin where Martin ordains Florent [ca. 1180, BmT, link] + two stained glass windows by Florent in the church of St Hilaire - St Florent [Semur 2015] : 1 hunting a snake 2 as an evangelist + fresco of the Charlemagne Tower in Tours (P.-S.). On the right, the coronation of Maurille by Martin [Saint Martin's Church in Beaupréau, link with 3 other stained glass windows] + statue of Maurille in Brain sur Allonnes [Semur 2015] + four views of wall paintings from an exceptional discovery in 1980 in the Cathedral of St Maurice in Angers, forming a cycle of the life of Maurille [3rd quarter of the 13th century, link] : 1 2 3 4 + view overview (not publicly available). .
Lazarus of Aix: sculpture on a capital in the chapel of Saint Lazarus, in the lower church of the abbey of Saint Victor in Marseille, his epitaph restored by Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc, in a seventeenth-century copy and stained glass window in the aisle of the church of St. Peter and St. Paul of Andlau (photos Yves Boto Campanella, link). Right Victrice of Rouen [fresco in the church of Saint Gervais in Rouen, Wikipedia] + vitrail of Victrice in the basilica of Our Lady of Bonsecours + case of a comic book about Rouen where Victrice appears rejoicing to welcome relics of Saints Gervais and Protais..
The collegiate church of Saint Yrieix la Perche, on the left, was for a long time attached to the abbey of Marmoutier. One of its bays, right, unites Yrieix and Martin [workshop Louis-Victor Gesta of Toulouse, late 20th century, link].
Child's grave found in a necropolis located "in the immediate vicinity, between a few meters and a few dozen meters, of the place where Bishop Martin was buried in 397." [Ta&m 2007], before his body was moved to the Basilica of Armence. + the page 97 of the same book showing a workshop of mosaicists who worked for the Basilica of Perpet, with fragment of mosaic above right.
To the left text by François Coulaud, drawing by Alain Duchêne + the two plates : 1 2 ["Tours Information May 1986], knowing , as already stated, that Tours was no longer called Caesarodunum On the right, the "basilica" of Armence as seen by the draftsman Lorenzo d'Esme [Fagot, Mestrallet - d'Esme 1996]. Despite the clarity of Luce Pietri's demonstration, few attribute the first St. Martin's Basilica to Armentius /Armentius. Let us therefore welcome these proposals by Michel Maupoix, in his Maupoix 2018. Olivier Guillot, in his "Saint Martin apostle of the poor" (2008) also validates Luce Pietri's analysis, which he deems "remarkable." He goes further : "We confess that we are inclined to doubt that at the end of the seven years of his stay in Rome, the pope prescribes Brice to return to Tours after declaring his "innocence". Also : "It must be believed that bishops of the province agreed to ordain successively the two bishops elected to replace the one who had been driven out", it was the time when Martin's prestige was gaining strength in the episcopate. And Brice was only able to return because he, too, bowed to the memory of Martin.
Between the Basilicas of Armence and Perpet, a temporary building ? On the CD associated with the Ta&m 2007 is a video (rendering Thierry Morin) presenting "an ordinary wooden building or a shelter for Martin's body ?", with the diagram at left and this other illustration. A text by Henri Galinié explains how "it becomes possible to propose that the building was used to momentarily expose the tomb or body of St. Martin so that the faithful could continue to come and venerate him since neither the basilica of Brice, dismantled, nor that of Perpet in the process of being completed, were accessible." On the right, a reconstruction that appeared in Cossu-Delaunay 2020 with a explanation titled "Interpreting an archaeological datum". It will be seen later that there would exist, fourteen centuries later, around 1870, a "provisional chapel" between the basilicas of Hervé and Laloux.
428-507: the time of the barbarian invasions in Touraine. Taking into account the dating of Armence's episcopate between 430 and 437 and that of Brice in two sequences, from 497 to 430 and from 437 to 442, the Wisigoths arrive in 428 under the first Brice sequence (repulsed, they will return around 469), the Alains in 438 under the second Brice sequence, the Bretons in 446 under Eustochius [Couillard - Tanter 1986 below].
Sanctus Bricius in an undetermined location and in the present basilica
Two stained glass windows in the Saint Laurent church in Montlouis sur Loire, signed Lux Fournier (1904), with the Loire River in the background. On the left "St Brice on his return from Rome stays in Montlouis and leaves Montlouis to return to Tours his episcopal city - Year 437". Right "St Perpet founds the church of Montlouis and deposits the relics of St Laurent - 464-494" (link). + detail of each of these two stained glass windows : 1 2 + in the same church a sculpture of the sharing of the mantle.
To the left, Patrick and the bush on a stained glass window in the church of St. Patrice (see box below) (links : 1 2, another link where it says he knew Maurille and Florent). On the right Martin and Patrick stand side by side at the feet of St. Gregory (of Tours ? or the Pope ?) [Clayton and Bell 1938, Cathedral of Truro, England, flickr Rex Harris]. + in the church of Saint Patrice, the stained-glass windows next door to Martin and Patrick [atelier Lobin]. + text by Bruno Judic, from the introduction to the Catalog 2016, showing other links between Ireland and Touraine (e.g. Columba of Terryglass passing through Marmoutier around 550, vitrail, link). Let's end with this page from an Irish site on Martin, featuring a vitrail by Harry Clarke (early 20th century, church in Castletownshend, Ireland).
Side by side in Orton Church in Devon, England, Scottish Ninian and Martin. 1959 stained glass windows by Stanley Murray Scott (link). At center, Berthe of Kent, statue by Stephen Melton 2004 in a Canterbury garden. Center right, Martin of Braga, statue in Braga, Portugal. At right, statue of Boniface, Apostle of the Germans, in front of St. Martin's Cathedral in Mainz (link) + miniature of an eleventh-century sacramentary from the abbey of Fulda depicting Boniface baptizing a pagan and then dying a martyr.
Two boxes by Albo Helm in BD Utrecht 2016 + the plank. It was under Martin's patronage that Willibrord (658-739) evangelized the Frise, recently acquired by the Merovingian Franks, from Trajectum / Utrecht. Martin is ubiquitous nt in Utrecht, as three other plates show: 1 2 3.
St. Martin de la Bataille Abbey. At left, scene from the Battle of Hastings on the Bayeux tapestry. In the center, a Romanesque rendering (link). On the right, the current entrance to the abbey. + two other restitutions from the Gothic period : 1 2 + engraving [Lecoy 1881] + photo of the abbey and battlefield as seen from the air.
"Leon the Great, Defying Attila", text France Richemond, drawing Stefano Carloni; Glénat-Cerf 2019 + cover + two boards : 1 2.
Church vs. Huns, the Pope Leon I (390-461) vs. the King Attila (395-453) [19th century drawing]
+ The same scene on a vitrail" from the church of St Maurice de Bécon in Courbevoie in the Ile de France region [Nhuan Doduc site]. + the same scene in a fresco monumental in the Vatican Palace, designed by Raphael and made with his disciple Giulio Romano [Wikipedia].
439: Hun mercenaries defeated by the Visigoths. 13 years before Attila's death, 42 years after Martin's, Huns mercenaries of Litorius would have sown terror in the basilica of Armence [drawing Mike Ratera, see below]. Terrified at their approach, the Visigoth king Theodoric I asked the bishop of Toulouse to negotiate peace. Overconfident, Litorius recklessly stormed Toulouse. Beaten, wounded, taken prisoner, this lieutenant of the Roman general Aetius, future victor of Attila (the mercenaries having become enemies), was executed. At right, stained glass window in the present basilica showing the soldier Hun struck blind (by Martin's hand) for the stolen crown in his hand [Lobin, Verry 2018].
451: Attila and the bagaudes. A decade after their misdeeds in Tours as mercenaries of the Romans, the Huns commanded by Attila attempted to invade Gaul. To do this, Attila sought to ally himself with the Bagaudes, through the intermediary of a kind of ambassador, a Greek physician, named Eudox, who was familiar with the Bagaudes lands. But the rural people in revolt against Roman oppression feared the Huns even more. Moreover, the Christianization of the countryside begun by Martin began to bring them closer to the city dwellers. This was a failure, as shown in the comic book series "The Song of the Elves" published from 2008 to 2010 by Soleil Productions in three volumes, with script by Bruno Falba and drawing by Mike Ratera. It describes the preparation for the battle of the Catalaunic Fields and the battle itself (in 451), with the presence of elves, dragons, and monsters to magnify the fighting, over a solid historical backdrop. + two plates on the heated discussion between Attila and Eudoxus (volume1) : 1 2 + one plank on the death of Eudoxus, lynched by his own people (before the battle, volume 2) + plates of the battle (intro of volume 1) : 1 2
>>>On the adjacent page is the chapter titled "449-451 The Huns and Attila's Betrayed Trust in Eudoxus and the Bagaudes".
451, harangued by the young Genevieve, the Parisians do not give in to the Huns. Left anonymous image circa 1890, right engraving LTh&m 1855. After some Huns passed through Tours, Attila, the Huns and their allies sought to sack Paris in 451. A devout Christian, Genevieve Severus, mobilized the Parisians against them. The account of this is presented on this page. It ends "Paris grateful placed the coffin of St. Genevieve beside that of Clovis, in the basilica of St. Peter and St. Paul, and chose for patroness in heaven her who twice had guarded it from the wrath of the barbarians". In her city, Genevieve, who came several times to Tours, dedicated a baptistery to St. Martin.
Genevieve at Tours. At left, a miracle of Genevieve in the Tours basilica [Lobin workshop circa 1900], told by Bruno Judic in the Collective 2019 : "Arriving in Tours, Genevieve goes to the basilica of St. Martin, which we must assume is brand new. There she cured the possessed and especially, in a spectacular way, one of the cantors, taken by a crisis of madness, in the middle of the celebration of the vigils of Saint Martin. Genevieve was therefore in Tours either for the 4th of July or for the 11th of November. Genevieve, who died in 500 at the age of 80, made several pilgrimages to Tours. On the right, "The work of the Huns (the Germans)"shows that fifteen centuries after their passage, the Huns retain a terrible reputation... + seven pages Nhuan DoDuc of stained glass windows on Genevieve : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (knowing that it is likely that the aristocratic Genevieve never herded sheep...). + vitrail from the church of Sainte Monégonde in Orphin in the Yvelines [Charles Lorin, of Chartres, link].
451, guided by their bishop Aignan, the Orleanians repelled the Huns, shortly after the relief of the Parisians and shortly before the Battle of the Catalaunic Fields. Aignan had been proclaimed bishop at Tours, in front of the tomb of St. Martin, as shown, left, in a stained glass window in the church of St. Aignan in Chartres, made by the Lorin 1893 workshop. + stained-glass window next to it featuring Aignan's triumphal entry into Orleans [flickr photos Paco Barranco]. Center and right, drawing by Julien Fournier 1883, preparatory to a stained glass window, showing Aignan encouraging the besieged soldiers to repel the Huns, in a scene that would later be repeated with the Tourangeaux and Vikings [Geneste 2018]. + The same scene on a fresco by the Italian Giuseppe Cesari (1568-1640).
Paulin of Perigueux. His writings are on the remacle site.
Illustrated history books often included on this page. In the 19th century, 10 years apart, two magnificent books were published on Touraine, dealing with its history with many unpublished engraved illustrations, some in color. Their grandiloquent frontispieces are repeated in the two illustrations at left. The first work, coded LTa&m 1845 is titled "La Touraine ancienne et moderne" published in 1845 by L. Mercier, written by Stanislas Bellanger (1814-1859), 614 pages, with numerous engravings, often by Lacoste Aîné. The format is standard. + covers. + double page presentation + some other pages.
Historians of Tours and Touraine. Each of them is cited multiple times on this page : Jean-Jacques Bourassé (1813-1872) (LTh&m 1855), Eugène Giraudet (1827-1887) ("History of the City of Tours", 1873), Pierre Leveel (1914-2017) (Leveel 1994), Bernard Chevalier (1923-2019) ("Tours ville royale 1356-1520", CLD 1983, "Histoire de Tours", Privat 1985), Pierre Audin (1944-) ("History of Touraine", Gestes Editions 2016...).
Paule and Eustochia disciples of Jerome of Stridon. At left, mosaic made from a page of the first bible of Charles the Bald, made by the scriptorium of Saint Martin's Abbey in Tours in 846. This miniature is a plate in three boxes : 1) Jerome leaves Rome then pays his teacher 2) he teaches Paule, Eustochia and others 3) he distributes his bible. In the center, mosaic from the basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome. On the right painting by Francisco de Zurbaran (1598-1664). + works by Jerome on the remacle website + remarks on a letter from Jerome to Eustochia, aged 16 to 18, which caused a scandal in Rome for inviting her to remain a virgin + painting on wood by Sano di Pietro, 1444, showing Jerome appearing in a dream to Sulpice Severus. + two stained glass windows by Paule [Nhuan DoDuc site] : 1 [Sens Cathedral] 2 [St. Nicholas Cathedral of Dalat in Vietnam]. + page Nhuan DoDuc of stained glass windows on Jerome, often depicted with a Bible + study on the life of Paula.
Paule and her descendants bishops until Gregory of Tours. On the left is Abbess Eustochia, daughter of Paule and aunt of Eustochius, the fifth bishop of Tours [painting by Juan de Valdés Leal, Bowes Museum]. Then Martin and Jerome side by side on the eastern portal of Chartres Cathedral [Lorincz 2001] (on the tympanum, Martin shares his cloak, zoom back, link) + gross shot of Martin's face [flickr joan yakkey]. The page English Wikipedia refers to Eustoche as Perpet's uncle, while the French page refers to him (in 2020) as his grandfather. Chronologically, the first hypothesis is more likely. Are present on the family trees : Paule (1), her daughter Eustochie (2), her grandson Eustoche (3), and her great grandson Perpet (4). The latter had an uncle Ommace / Ommatius (5) whose grandson of the same name Ommatius / Ommat / Ommace became the 12th bishop of Tours from 522 to 526 (6) and whose granddaughter Ruricia married the bishop Rusticus of Lyon (7) (a close friend of Sidonius Apollinaris), who had two sons who became bishops of Lyon, Leontius (8) and Sacerdoce (9) and a nephew (also nephew of Ommace 5) Rurice II bishop of Limoges (10) having as grandparents Avitus Western Roman emperor and Saint Rurice bishop of Limoges. The descent of Rusticus of Lyon (7) shows that he had three grandsons bishops, Aurelian in Arles, Nizier in Lyon, Maurillon in Cahors, a great-grandson (rather one of his close cousins) Eufronius / Euphronius bishop of Tours and a great-great-grandson who is the famous historian Gregory, bishop of Tours.
Melanie the Elder and Melanie the Younger. On the left is the Ancient one [Priscilla's catacomb] then the Young one. The first name Melanie has as derivatives Melaine, Melina, Melinda, Melusine, Molly... + two stained glass windows (Nhuan DoDuc site) presenting Melanie the Young : 1 [St. Peter's Church in Charenton le Pont in Ile de France] 2 [St Nicolas St Martin church of Valmont in Normandy].
The family proximity of Eustoche (and his nephew Perpet) to Melanie the Younger and Paulin de Nole. The tree on the left shows that Eustoche and Melanie the younger are first cousins. The tree on the right shows that Melanie the elder, grandmother of Melanie the younger, was first cousin to Paulin de Nole. The "SOSA" indications match up with people in the ancestry of many genealogists and beyond... since Eustoche's parents are ancestors of Charlemagne (tree). Eustoche and Melanie the Younger are not cousins though, but they do run in two very close families. + tree showing that Paule (Eustoche's great-grandmother) has a daughter-in-law Laeta whose first cousin, Valerus, is the father of Melanie the Younger and the son of Melanie the Older this is another connection of the families of Eustoche and Paulin de Nole. This family closeness between Pauline and the Melanies is all the stronger since they all three settled in Palestine, in Bethlehem and in Jerusalem. Finally, let us note that in a study from 1956 dealing with the "conversion of a family of the Roman aristocracy of the Late Empire", André Chastagnol offers a schematic genealogy estimating that Paule (#22) and Melanie la Jeune (#16) are cousins. While the cousinship appears very plausible, it probably looks a little different because a generation or two separates Paule (b. 347) and Melanie (b. 383), yet this stemma puts them on the same level. By way of Paule, then, there is a second cousinhood, more distant than the first, between Eustoche and Melanie.
On the left, the martyrdom of Gervais and Protais, one by flagellation, the other by decapitation [design for stained glass window in Noyant de Touraine, by Julien Fournier and Amand Clément 1875, Geneste 2016]. At right, "The Invention of the Relics of Saint Gervais and Saint Protais" by Philippe de Champaigne circa 1659 [Musée Beaux-Arts Lyon, Wikipedia] + tableau by Eustache le Sueur 1655 [Lyon Museum of Fine Arts]. + four pages from Nhuan DoDuc's website featuring stained glass windows by Gervais and Protais : 1 2 3 4.
Councils: an episcopal democracy? The Gallic bishops met for the first time in Arles in 314. Whether provincial, regional or national, councils continued throughout the troubled times of the barbarian invasions. The non-exhaustive list is on this page of Wikipedia. In addition to Church business, these meetings dealt in the background with the political problems of the day, brought geographical coherence to episcopal action, and strengthened the network of bishops throughout Gaul. On the left the council / synod of Seleucia (the one of 359 or 410 or 486 ?) [Semur en Brionnais, collegiate church of Saint Hilaire]. On the right, the Council of Marseille in 533 [église saint Trophime in Arles, painting on wood, late 16th century (link)].
The first bishops of Tours painted on the oratory of the Tours Museum of Fine Arts. In the tower of the Gallic enclosure adjoining the Fine Arts Museum, formerly the Archbishop's Palace, next to the cathedral [reminder: photo], an oratory was set up around 1872, with vaults painted by Louis de Bodin de Galembert, depicting eight of the early bishops of Tours, here Perpet on the left and Eustoche on the right, before restoration + the decoration depicting Martin and Gatien (in color) before restoration ["The legend of Saint Martin in the 19th century" 1997] and after restoration [Book Catalogue 2016]. On the right church foundations in the diocese of Tours from the fourth to the sixth century ["France before France", Belin 2010], showing how much Martin's successors continued the evangelization of Touraine.
Evolution of the city of Tours 2/7: With the new Perpet Basilica, Tours becomes a capital of pilgrim tourism Tours thus became a place of pilgrimage, in a way the sanctuary of Lourdes of the Gauls or the sanctuary of Aesculapius at Epidaurus in ancient Greece transposed into the Western Roman Empire... If the hoped-for miracle did not materialize in Tours, pilgrims could also go to Marmoutier or Candes, or try, in the vicinity, another lesser-known saint or one more specialized in the ailments to be cured... Of course, according to Perpet's successors, there were other posthumous miracles of Martin. According to Charles Lelong ["Vie et culte de Saint Martin", 1990], if Nicolas Gervaise is to be believed in 1699, "it was only during the second quarter of the sixteenth century that miracles became rarer and that this place so venerable to all the world lost some of its brilliance and splendor". And he believes ["Life and Posthumous Glory," 1996] that "it was in the sixth and early seventh centuries that the cult reached its peak, unless we are misled by the abundance of information."
At left, Perpet directing construction, from a calendar by Jacques Callot (1592-1635) (+ image of Martin in this famous calendar). In the center Perpet proceeds with the placement, known as "translation," of the tomb in his basilica [Lobin stained glass window, Laloux basilica]. On the right, the infirm at the tomb of Saint Martin [stained glass window from the collegiate church of Candes, F. Gaudin 1900]. + plank by Joshua Peeters in BD Utrecht 2016 showing this translation which was dated July 4, 471.
Perpet's consecration of the basilica and prayer within its walls. On the left stained glass window from the Lobin 1870 workshop, located in a oculus of the church of Saint Martin le Beau in Touraine (description in "The heritage of the communes of Indre et Loire" 2001) + stained glass in the same church with Martin in the sky watching the transfer of the tomb. At right, stained glass window by Lux Fournier 1904 (+ photo), in the neighboring Saint Laurent church in Montlouis sur Loire, with the caption "An inhabitant of Montlouis comes to pray at the tomb of St. Martin where he miraculously recovers the use of speech" [three illustrations from Verriere 2018, with the tomb highlighted].
Other scenery. ["La basilique de Saint-Martin de Tours", Charles Lelong, 1986]. Opposite, Fagot, Mestrallet - d'Esme 1996 (there is hesitation between 471 and 472, 471 is more frequently used). In addition to piety, the basilica benefited from the attraction towards beautiful images, then rare in this period.
Remember that we have seen here before probable reproductions of the central decoration of the Basilica of Perpet : these three variants of the sharing of the mantle, miniatures from Fulda Abbey, dated to about 975, five centuries after the original work. This can be considered a comic strip with 3 non-separated boxes : 1) Martin and the poor man, the sharing of the coat, 2) God and his angels who in the background observe and manipulate, 3) Martin who becomes aware in his sleep that it is to God that he has offered half his cloak. This scene in three successive and linked times, telling a story, was modern and powerful, fascinating...
1) Merowig at the foot of Martin's tomb [Jean-Paul Laurens 1882, "The Legend of Saint Martin in the 19th Century" 1997]. Merovia / Merovig was the grandfather of Clovis, giving his name to the Merovingians. It is very unlikely that he was concerned with Martin and Tours, it would be more Merove, great grandson of Clovis. + another drawing, in the Basilica of Perpet, by the same author in the same series "Tales of the Merovingian Times". 2) In the center, fragment of the tomb of Bishop Euphronus of Autun (see box below). 3) On the right, prayer before the tomb, 15th century tapestry [musée des tissus à Lyon].
Entrelacs. Ornamental vision of the present basilica + another pattern of stained glass + five photos : 1 2 3 4 5.
Pre-Romanesque art, from Perpet's basilica to Laloux's. Plant and animal decoration by Pierre Fritel (ceiling above and altar mosaic below left) in the present Laloux Basilica. Very present in early Christian art, the peacock is the symbol of immortality and resurrection.
Right : in order to preserve the unity of the whole despite the fragmentation of the building site, Pierre Boille makes sure to reproduce the forms and decorative vocabulary used by Laloux. Here the budding and diamond points taken from the balustrade of the staircase leading to the choir (photo). [illustrations and text from "Victor Laloux, son oeuvre tourangelle," Hugo Massire, Sutton 2016, arch. départ. 37, Boille collection]. On the Perpet basilica and the research of Jules Quicherat and Casimir Chevalier, see this chapter hereafter.
Martin supports Maure in his fight against the Arian Visigoths, such is the meaning of these two stained glass windows by Lux Fournier [church of Saint Branchs in Touraine, Garden 2018]. Twin sister of Brigitte de Touraine (or Britte or Britta), both supposedly descended from a Scottish king, Maure is said to have gone to Tours with her nine children to be baptized by Martin. But a Visigoth chief did not accept this conversion and sent an army of 50 men after each of the children to make them recant. One of them, Epain, was caught and martyred. Hence the names of the communes of Sainte Maure (and its famous goat cheese !) and Saint Epain. Since the Visigoths did not arrive in Touraine until 80 years after Martin's death, the story is later, Moor and his children would have met Martin only during a pilgrimage to his tomb... Or it is about the first incursion of Visigoths around 428, Moor and Epain being then aged for example 70 years and 50 years... + the greenhouse of St Branchs in its entirety (read from bottom to top) + vitrail depicting Epain in the church of St. Epain in St. Epain [Nhuan DoDuc site] + cover of a booklet about Epain..
The Gallic state of Soissons under Egidius from 461 to 464, on the left, then, on the right, under Syagrius from 464 to 486.
In the center a Visigoth warrior [drawing Pierre Joubert, "Au temps des royaumes barbares" 1984].
461, Chinon: the Visigoths, the Gauls of Soissons and Mexme, disciple of Martin. As the stained glass window on the left shows, St. Mexme repelled (temporarily...) both the Visigoth soldiers of Frederick (son of Theodoric) and the Gaulish soldiers of General Egidius (then leading the kingdom of Soissons extending into Touraine, the last survival of the Gallo-Roman era) who were fighting over the city of Chinon. This was in 461 and Mexme (Maxime), who was ordained a priest by Martin (thus before 397) and who was visited several times in Chinon, was probably dead, even if Gregory of Tours makes him die in 463. Trained at Marmoutier, Mexme was an exemplary disciple of Martin, both monk and evangelist like his master. The city of Chinon / Caino (whose church of Saint Martin was created in 425 by Brice, Mexme being its first abbot) was occupied by the Visigoths around 469 [Luce Pietri page 129] until their defeat in 507 at Vouillé. On the right is the collégiale Saint Mexme in Chinon. Links : 1 2. 3 4 + un episode of the Visigoth / Egidius / Mexme clash by Couillard - Tanter 1986 + sculpture of Mexme and Martin side by side [Saint Louans Chapel in Chinon, link]. + drawing of Bourgerie from the early 19th century [Level 1994]. + engraving LTh&m 1855.
501, Amboise: Alaric II and Clovis, the kings of the Visigoths and Franks, sign peace. "The conference had link on the confines of the two kingdoms, in the small island Saint Jean [today golden island], in the middle of the Loire. Approaching each other, the two princes embraced. [...]Alaric touched the beard of Clovis and Clovis that of Alaric, testimony of an eternal friendship." [LTa&m 1845]
507, Vouillé, near Poitiers: the victory of Clovis. Six years later, the war resumed and, at the Battle of Vouillé, Alaric was killed, apparently by Clovis himself [L'Histoire de France en BD Larousse 1976, text Christian Godard, drawing Julio Ribera]. + the plank. The Franks invade Aquitaine, the Visigoths are pushed back to Narbonne and behind the Pyrenees.
470: the writer Sidoine Apollinaire, cousin of bishops of Tours, becomes bishop of Clermont. Coming from the Gallic aristocracy, Sidonius Apollinaris was one of the greatest scholars of his time, author of a brilliant correspondence, also playing a political role with the Gallic emperor Avitus who ruled the Western Roman Empire in 455 and 456. Cousin of Volusian, 6th bishop of Tours, and Ommace, grandfather of Ommace 12th bishop of Tours (who was nephew of Rurice, bishop of Limoges), he was appointed in 470 bishop of Clermont. He is depicted above on a stained glass window in Clermont-Ferrand Cathedral and in a box in "History of Lyon" text A. Pelletier, F. Bayard, drawing Jean Prost, 1979. According to Gregory of Tours, Sidonius' son fought with the Visigoths against Clovis at the battle of Vouillé (507). + his writings on the remacle site.
Left, 498: Martyrdom of Volusian, successor of Perpet, according to a 12th-century Romanesque capital (P.-S.) + other scene [Musée du Château de Foix, Wikipedia]. This martyrdom is not attested to in the texts of the time, one may consult the study by Florence Guillot "Saint-Volusien in the Middle Ages, an abbey in the shadow of Foix Castle". Right, 511: the Visigoth clergy abandon the Arian religion, in Orleans, four years after the Franks defeated the Visigoths at the Battle of Vouillé, to adhere to the Holy Trinity of the Church of Rome ["At the Time of the Barbarian Kingdoms," album in the series "La vie privée des hommes", Hachette 1985, texts Patrick Périn and Pierre Forni, drawings Pierre Joubert]
The crowd of pilgrims around Martin's tomb ["The Private Lives of Men" 1985, same above].
On the left, a Frankish woman in the early sixth century [Pierre Joubert, "At the Time of the Barbarian Kingdoms" 1984]. In the center, Frankish warriors by Liliane and Fred Funcken [volume 1 of "The Costume and Weapons of All Times", Casterman 1986]. On the right, Childeric I (436-481), father of Clovis, with the clothes found in his tomb discovered in 1653 in Tournai [reconstruction Patrick Périn, article 2015].
Excerpt from BD Utrecht 2016 + the plank.(by Joshua Peeters).
To the left, in 496 it seems, the Battle of Tolbiac where the Franks defeat the Alamans. Was Clovis helped by the God of Clotilde and Martin ? He thanked them for it. + seven images : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 + two tables [Wikipedia] : 1 [Paul Joseph Blanc 1881, the Pantheon in Paris] 2 [Ary Scheffer 1836, Gallery of Battles, Palace of Versailles]. On the right, around the year 500, Clovis, in the basilica of Perpet, decides to be baptized [Fagot, Mestrallet - d'Esme 1996]. Recent dating positions this battle in 506 and the baptism in 507, without consensus.
The baptism of Clovis by Bishop Remi, in Rheims, below in the 9th century, opposite in the 19th century.
The baptism of Clovis was followed by that of many soldiers and their wives, as shown in this painting by Jules Rigo,
1860 approximately [Musée des Beaux-Arts de Valenciennes].
Extract from a page from the "Clovis I" site + the same scene where Clovis enters the basilica to receive the (honorary) title and crown of consul from the emperor Anasthesius, in a vitrail of the current basilica [Lobin workshop].
"Triumphal entry of Clovis at Tours in 508", Joseph Nicolas Robert-Fleury, 1837 [Châteaux of Versailles and Trianon].
To the left the basilica, in the background the walls of the civitas Turonorum / City (formerly Caesarodunum).
History of France in Comics, text by Christian Godard, drawing by Julio Ribera, Larousse 1976
Couillard - Tanter 1986 + three boards "Clovis - Visigoths and Franks" : 1 2 3.
Right, Clovis in front of Martin's tomb ["The Life and Miracles of Bishop St. Martin," 1516, BmT] + variant 1496..
Clotilde survives a massacred family. In 486, at age 12, Princess Clotilda had her parents and four brothers murdered by her uncle Gondebaud, now the sole ruler of the Burgundian kingdom. Her husband Clovis did not have time to conquer his homeland, his children did. ["Clotilde first queen of the Franks", texts Monique Amiel, drawings Alain d'Orange, 1980] + cover 2014 edition. + nine plates on Clotilde's youth until her husband's baptism : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9.
Clotilde in front of the tomb, this time topped by a depiction of the sharing of the cloak. Miniature from the Grandes Chroniques de France de Charles V in two different versions, circa 1375 and circa 1412 [BnF].
Right, stained glass window from the Saint Grégoire des Minimes church in Tours [Van Guy 2005, Fournier workshop, photo Daniel Michenaud, link)
Sancta Clotildis in the present basilica, Lorin and Lobin workshops [Veranda 2018] + four pages from Nhuan DoDuc's website featuring stained glass windows by Clotilde : 1 2 3 4 (his youth in seven scenes, his death below in the same collegiate church in Les Andelys).
Didion's stained glass window (1866) recounting the life of Clotilde in the collégiale Notre-Dame des Andelys, in the Eure, in 5 scenes. From left to right, scenes 2 (she retires to the basilica of St Martin), 3 (she does good works there), 4 (her death) take place in Tours [Wikipedia]. There are, in this collegiate church, two other stained glass windows on the life of Clotilde, before her period in Tours : 1 2 (link).
To the left, Clotilde's last hours in Tours, from "St. Clotilda Queen of the Franks", text Reynald Secher Jacques Olivier, drawings Alfonso Tirado (RSE Nuntiavit 2019), colorized cover of a 1962 Mexican comic book (link) + the last board. + bas-relief of the Basilica of Saint Clotilde in Paris. On the right, like any saint, Clotilde would have gone to heaven, surrounded by angels [St. Roch Church in Paris, link].
Clotilde, Queen of the Franks, in the exercise of power, with her husband Clovis [painting by Jean-Antoine Gros (1771-1835)], then her sons.
In these three images, Clotilde is in charge, manipulating husband and then children (center the division of the kingdom among her sons) (right the anachronism of Herve's basilica). [Wikipedia, Grandes chroniques de saint Denis, Bibliothèque de Toulouse, and illustration of 1889]. Below, 19th century engraving by Edouard Zier titled "Clotilde sets fire to the country of Burgundy".
Monegonde. At left, stained glass window from the Basilica of Saint Clotilde in Paris (next to the stained glass window of Saint Medard) (photo Robert Harding). At center, 1602 statuette from the church of Rosière la Petite in the commune of Rosières in Belgium. On the right, remains of the Church of Saint Pierre le Puellier. + another photo. + vitrail from the Sainte Monégonde church in Orphin (Yvelines) (Lorin workshop)].
Radegonde Queen of the Franks. 1) her meeting with Clotaire I ; 2) top, in 538, her eventful wedding feast (explanation Wikipedia) then in prayer, bottom see box below ; 3) entry into orders, accompanied by the people. ["Scenes from the life of Saint Radegonde ", 11th century, Bibliothèque municipale de Poitiers, Wikipedia] + image of the wedding (link).
Radegonde, two stained glass windows in the present Saint Martin's Basilica in Tours: workshop Lobin of Tours (Radegonde placing her queenly crown on the tomb) and workshop Lorin of Chartres. Then stained glass window from the church of Saint Radegonde in Poitiers. On the right, the death of Radegonde, stained glass sketch by the Fournier workshop of Tours [Geneste 2018]. + vitrail of the Breathing [Gustave Pierre Dagrant of Bordeaux 1906, St. Radegonde Chapel in Yversay in Poitou, link]. + three stained glass windows : 1 [church of Tournon Saint Martin in Indre] 2 [church of St. Andre in Châteauroux, also in Indre] 3 [Lucien-léopold Lobin 1862, church of Vouneuil sous Biard, near Poitiers] + painting "The Vocation of Saint Radegonde" by Urbain Viguier, 1851, Saint Martin de Couhé church, Poitou, before (link) and after (photo La NR) restoration. + vitrail "St. Gregory blesses the tomb of St. Radegonde " [St. Radegonde's church in Athies in Picardy] + on Nhuan DoDuc's site, a page showing the life of Radegonde in 32 scenes [Ste Radegonde de Poitiers church] and two pages of stained glass windows of Radegonde : 1 2.
Sainte Radegonde in Touraine. In Tours, on the right bank of the Loire near Marmoutier, there is a semi-troglodytic church named after her, built in the 12th century, enlarged in the 16th and restored in the 19th. Martin is said to have lived and officiated in the troglodytic part [photo at left, link]. The commune of Sainte Radegonde, on which this church and Marmoutier Abbey were located, was attached to Tours in 1964. Near Chinon, a troglodytic chapel, restored at the end of the 19th century, classified as a historical monument in 1967, is dedicated to her [center Wikipedia photo]. + statue of Radegonde in the church of Epuisay adjoining that of her mother-in-law Clotilde [from the work of 130 illustrated pages "Radegonde between Loir and Cher" by Jean-Jacques Loisel 2012, Société archéologique du Vendômois].
Clotaire I, son of Clovis and Clotilde, exempts Tours from taxation. To function properly, the Merovingian state of course needed to collect taxes. Clotaire I ordered his officers to "dress tax rolls" throughout the country. The inhabitants of Tours were granted exemption, and the king had these rolls burned in his presence [LTh&m 1855]. At right, miniature about the troubled end of life, circa 560, of Chramn (or Chramn), son of Clotaire I and thus grandson of Clovis and Clotilde. Three scenes are depicted : in the second plan on the right, Chramme and the burning of the basilica Saint-Martin of Tours (here zoomed in), in the second plan on the left, the battle between Clotaire I and the Bretons with Chramme and in the foreground the death of Chramme [Guillaume Crétin, "French Chronicles", BnF].
Three murders involving Frederick in 568, 575 and 586. At left, miniature "Chilperic strangling Galswinthe in front of Frédégonde" [Grandes chroniques de France, 1412, BnF]. In the center, painting "Frédégonde arming the murderers of Sigebert" [Emmanuel Herman Joseph Wallet, Musée de la Chartreuse de Douai]. On the right, Pretextat, bishop of Rouen, accuses Frederick of having him murdered [Lawrence Alma-Tadema, Pushkin Museum, Moscow]. Did Gregory of Tours, who recounts these murders, blacken the attitude of Frederick ?
576, Meroveius takes refuge in the basilica to escape from Frederick. By marrying his aunt Brunehaut, with the consent of the bishop Pretextat, Merovius provokes the anger of his stepmother Frederodina, leading his father to lock him up, then to tonsure him and ordain him a priest in Metz. Merovius escaped and took refuge in the basilica of Saint Martin in Tours. His father laid siege to the city, he escaped again, but was betrayed and murdered by one of his relatives in Thérouanne, in 577. A year earlier, before his fatal marriage, at the head of an army charged with invading Poitou, he had stopped at Tours, which he had devastated [in the series "Les reines tragiques", "Frédégonde la sanguinaire" text by Virginie Greiner, drawing by Alessia de Vincenzi, Delcourt 2016] + two plates : 1 2
Brunehaut as mean as Frederick? While Gregory of Tours had described Brunehaut as "a young girl of elegant manners, beautiful of figure, honest and decent in her morals, of good counsel and pleasant conversation", Frédégaire, in his Chronicles considers that she has aged badly and would have become "woman more cruel than any wild beast". It is this view, putting her on the same level as Frédégonde, that the writer
To the left, the wedding of Brunehaut and Sigebert. In the center, Brunehaut in two late 19th century illustrations.
The Abbey of Brunehaut in Autun. Founded in the 6th century by Brunehaut, having collected her remains, the abbey of Saint Martin d'Autun was for a long time a rich and radiant abbey. Only the entrance portal remains... From left to right: engraving by Bardelet, 1741, late 18th century drawing by Jean-Baptiste Lallemand, Brunehaut's tomb before its destruction during the Revolution by Alexandre Lenoir (link), 21st century photo. + sculpture of the portal + plan of the abbey. This abbey could have been raised on a former church created by Martin himself (story, link).
To the left a miniature from the book "Life of Saint Radegonde by Venance Fortunat" circa 1100 [Bibliothèque municipale de Poitiers]. Then a stained glass window from the church of Sainte Radegonde des Noyers in the Vendée. + page from the Nhuan DoDuc website featuring some of Fortunat's stained glass windows.
Venance reciting his poems to Radegonde by Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1836-1912) [Dordrechts Museum in the Netherlands, Wikipedia].
+ vitrail from the church of Sainte Odile in Paris depicting Radegonde, her nuns, and Fortunat.
Prostitution in Christian countries through the centuries. Some of the revolted nuns of 589 probably became prostitutes... Saint Augustine in the 5th century: "Suppress prostitutes, you will disturb society with libertinism". Christian tradition views prostitution as a necessary lesser evil. Where do we fit in between nuns remaining virgins, married women becoming unmarried, celibates who may be considered dishonest or sorcerers, and prostitutes? Merry widows ?... [painting of undetermined origin on a medieval scene of defiance, page "History of Prostitution in France"] + commented on miniature depicting "a brothel or sweat lodge scene" in the late Middle Ages ["Les renaissances," Belin 2013, BnF] + two other illustrations : 1 2 3 [15th century, BnF] In the mid-15th century, parents encouraged their sons to fornicate at prostibulum (link). This was then considered a venial sin, while luxury was one of the seven capital sins.
Couillard - Tanter 1986 + article by Elisabeth Lorans "Christian Buildings of Gregory of Tours" [Ta&m 2007]
+ article "Gregory, historian and cantor of Martin," illustrated with a sixth-century manuscript [Fasc. NR 2012].
At left, a stained glass window grouping Gregory, Martin, and Clotilde in the church of Saint Gregory of the Minimes in Tours [Van Guy 2005, Fournier workshop, photo Daniel Michenaud, link) (the basilica in the Hervé version, gros-plan). At center-left, engraving by François Dequevauviller (1745-1817) colored after Louis Boulanger (1806-1867). At center right, Gregory holding Martin's tomb in his hands [stained glass pencil sketch, alongside St. Seine, Atelier Dagrand, Bordeaux, link]. At right, sanctus Gregorius in the present basilica [Lorin workshop].
Couillard - Tanter 1986 + the two plates on Gregory : 1 2. Right statue of Jean Marcellin, circa 1852, in the Louvre [Wikipedia]. + two pages of a tribute by Evelyne Bellanger titled "Grégoire de Tours, père de l'histoire de France", in Mag. Touraine No. 59 of October 1994 : 1 2 (for the fourteenth centenary of his death, 594-1994)
To the left, Gregory of Tours in the sacramentary of Marmoutier for the use of Autun, ca. 850 [Autun Library, Wikipedia]. + study by Cécile Voyer , in 2013, on this sacramentary. On the right, Gregory tells... ["History of Brittany" volume 1, texts Reynald Secher, drawings René le Honzec, 1991] + the board
The pilgrimages of St. Martin in the 6th century (at the time of Gregory) and in 1985 ["Life and worship of St. Martin", C. Lelong 1990]. Charles Lelong in his book of 2000: "It is a phenomenon above all regional and, for a significant part, diocesan : 27% of pilgrims are from Touraine, 12% come from foreign countries, Spain, Italy or even the East. On the left fifteenth-century carved corner post, 26 rue de la Monnaie in Tours, depicting a pilgrim [Catalogue 2016]. To the right and below, images from the page of the Christian Rome website on pilgrims. + article by Bruno Judic 2005 "The Pilgrimage to St. Martin of Tours from the Seventh to the Tenth Centuries".
This vial contained Martin's virtus! Oil in small vials deposited near the tomb, so that the liquid would become charged with the virtus of the saint, carried away as relics. In 1865, this vial was discovered with coins of the emperors Honorius and Majorian. An inscription indicates that it comes from the tomb of Martin. + two pages of explanations : 1 2 [Lecoy 1881]. + article Historia Special #112 (2008, link).
With Gregory, whatever the association of these first two illustrations [LTa&m 1845] say, we are far from a "History relying on Truth" ! Even if it does reveal elements of truth that we wouldn't know without it... The illustration on the left is inspired by the one on the right, an engraving by André Thevet in "Portraits and Lives of Illustrious Men," 1584 [Gallica]. + two engravings LTh&m 1855 : 1 2.
Stained glass windows in the present basilica dealing with events in the Perpet basilica [Lobin circa 1900, link]. 1) Ultrogoth, Frankish queen, wife of Childebert I (fourth son of Clovis), condemned to exile in 558, after her husband's death. 2) Eloi (588-660), bishop of Noyon, minister and close advisor to King Dagobert I. 3) Baud, of Frankish descent, 16th bishop of Tours from 546 to 552 and referent to King Clotaire I, another son of Clovis (his life here). + another vitrail : in 559, Williachaire, a Frankish nobleman, took refuge in the basilica, the specter of Martin broke his bonds.
Engraving by Karl Girardet [LTh&m 1855]
Excerpt from History of France in Comics, fascicle 3, text by Jacques Bastian, drawing by Milo Manara, Larousse 1976
+ the three plates recounting this battle : 1 2 3
Here the Battle of Poitiers is called the Battle of Tours (also on the page English Wikipedia and in a recent video game, cover, link). [LTa&m 1845] + other engraving [Karl Girardet, LTh&m 1855] + tableau by Charles de Steuben 1837 [Château de Versailles, link] + thirteen other illustrations of the battle : 1 (thumbnail) 2 3 [H. Grobet] 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
At Aachen, capital of the Carolingian Empire, the palatine chapel with the emperor's throne in the center [Wikipedia illustrations]
+ restitution of the palace [Nathan 2009].
The collegiate church of Saint Martin in Angers is a fine example of the Carolingian architectural renaissance. On the right, evolution in the 5th, 9th and 18th centuries. Links : 1 (Wikipedia) 2 (Balades.Patrimoine) 3 (official website). "As early as the 5th century, a first building was founded on the site. It was enlarged in the 6th and 7th centuries during the Merovingian period. The project then becomes more ambitious than the previous ones by the creation of a vast transept, each arm of which is extended by an apse which brings to the whole a great magnitude." + documentation [Department 49].
The World Tree Irminsul was cut down in 772 on the orders of Charlemagne. In the 1st volume of the comic strip Durandal, published by Soleil Productions in 2010, drawing by Gwendal Lemercier, text by Nicolas Jarry, it's Charlemagne himself who wields the axe. + four plates : 1 2 3 4. + two 19th century engravings : 1 [Wilhelm Wagner 1882] 2 + three representations of the Irminsul symbol: 1 2 3. A little earlier, not far away, in Hesse, St. Boniface of Mainz, nicknamed the Apostle of the Germans as Martin was the Apostle of the Gauls, had felled in 724 the Oak of Thor (vitrail of the cathedral of Truro in Cornwall + drawing by Bernhard Rode 1781 + other image). Boniface is also the creator in 742 of the already mentioned Fulda Abbey, so inspired by Martin, who is patron of the Mainz Cathedral, which is attested as early as 752 according to Götz Pfeiffer [Collective 2019].
|Martin and Charlemagne fathers of Europe? We have emphasized the European influence of the second bishop of Tours. Charlemagne was inspired by it (especially with his capital Aachen, the appointment of Alcuin in Tours ...) and is in its continuity, to the point of sometimes being considered the "Father of Europe" for having ensured the consolidation of a notable part of Western Europe (Wikipedia map opposite, Corsica was then attached to the Byzantine Empire), and laid down principles of government that the great European states inherited.|
Nikto - Kline 1987 + the two story boards "The Last Years of Alcuin" : 1 2.
Couillard - Tanter 1986
Alcwinus in the actual basilica
+ video Arte February 25, 2020 (7 min.) on Alcuin, the Charlemagne Tower and the Basilica of Saint Martin
"School of Alcuin in Tours"
+ 2 pages : 1 2
+ image 1920
Alcuin presents Charlemagne with a manuscript from the scriptorium of Tours [Jean-Victor Schnetz 1830, Musée du Louvre, Wikipedia] + vitrail Lobin of the present-day basilica where Alcuin prostrates himself before Martin's tomb to stop the basilica from burning.
On the left, a miniature from a Roman manuscript of about 840 shows Alcuin, in the background, introducing his student Raban Maur, already seen above, to Martin, who lived four centuries earlier, in a allegory of the succession of disciple-to-master relationships [flickr Peter] + variant. In the center, the first bible of Charles the Bald, made in Tours, was given by Vivien to the king of the Franks around 845. Three monks present the manuscript, wrapped in a cloth. On the right close-up of Vivien offering the book (P.-S.) + two plates drawn from this work : 1 (life of Saint Jerome) 2 (Adam and Eve).
Carolus Magnus in the present basilica [Lobin workshop]. In the center, a rendering of the Basilica of Tours in Carolingian times in Kenneth Conant's book "Chilperic I" (link). + two pages from Nhuan DoDuc's site featuring stained glass windows of Charlemagne : 1 2.
Extract from the teaching kit "Martin of Tours, the Radiance of the City" (2016) presenting "The School of Tours in the Carolingian Period", explaining for example what a codex is. But you shouldn't confuse a comic book with a succession of captioned scenes, with no continuity of action... + file educational + quiz educational.
Before marrying Luitgarde of Alemania, Charlemagne had had four wives. The most famous was the third, Hidegarde of Vintzgau, married at 13 in 771, died in childbirth at 25 in 783, after giving birth to 9 children, 3 of whom did not live. Only one of her sons survived Charlemagne and succeeded him, Louis I the Pious, whose second and last wife was Judith of Bavaria. [Charles and Hildegard, Baroque fresco in the ceremonial rooms of the Residence of the Prince-Abbots of Kempten / Campidonia in Swabia, link]
Luitgarde. 1) 19th century engraving. 2) figure by Gustave Vertunni, between 1938 and 1946. 3) 20th century illustration 4) wax statue of the former historial of Touraine circa 1990, next to Charlemagne and Alcuin in the decor of the Basilica/Collegiale Saint Martin 5) Case Couillard - Tanter, 1986 + two plates on "The Carolingians and Touraine" : 1 2.
814, Louis I succeeded his father Charlemagne. Born in Chasseneuil du Poitou, the son of Charles I the Great and Hildegarde, Louis was crowned king of Aquitaine at age 3. He plays a role in the government of the kingdom and takes part in military expeditions from the age of 12. At 22, in 800, he is in Tours with his father (+ miniature of Fulda Abbey in 826 representing him as a young man). At the age of 36, in 814, his older brothers having died, he succeeded his father in 814, as king of the Franks.He became Louis I the Pious, crowned emperor of the West two years later. On the left, Louis and his father, illumination from the Grandes Chroniques de France, 14th century [BnF].On the right the same when Charles designates him as his successor, 19th-century engraving (link).
Judith, the beautiful ambitious. Center Louis and Judith "Genealogy of Charlemagne" in "The Nuremberg Chronicles" by Hartmann Schedel (1440-1510). Right anonymous author circa 1510 [center and right Wikipedia illustrations]. + two other representations : 1 2.
843, the Treaty of Verdun. The signing of the birth certificate of France according to the will of Judith of Bavaria [History of France in Comics, Larousse 1979, text Jean Ollivier, drawing Eduardo Coelho] + two other illustrations : 1 2.
Judith long hated by her stepsons and their children. Published in 1999, the third book in the series "I Svein, Hasting's companion," by writer Eriamel and cartoonist Jean-Marie Woehrel, is titled "Pepin II of Aquitaine". Upon the death of his father Pepin I of Aquitaine, Pepin II was recognized as king of Aquitaine by his uncles but not by his grandfather Louis the Pious, who granted Aquitaine to Judith's son. This solid reconstruction shows to what extent Charles the Bald had to fight to realize his mother's project. + :the three plates of the story of Pepin II : 1 2 3.
Charles II, King of Francia. Two portraits of Charles II the Bald (843-877), son of Judith and Louis I the Pious, first ruler of a kingdom that would become France [Wikipedia illustrations]. Left, illumination from the "Psautier of Charles the Bald" from before 869 (BnF) Right, illumination from the Codex Aureus of St. Emmeran, ca. 870 (Munich Library). + four images of Charles II : 1 2 3 4 (link).
|Circa 471||(possibly November 11, 471) Inauguration of the basilica by Bishop Perpet.|
|In 558||A fire destroys the roof, which is restored by King Clotaire ; Bishop Gregory then restores the murals. [or 560?]|
|In 630||Saint Eloi thanks to the assistance of King Dagobert decorates the tomb of Saint Martin, his ancient sarcophagus, and that of Saint Brice with sumptuous works of goldsmithery.|
|Circa 800||New fire, which Alcuin miraculously stops ; some debris of stone carvings may fall under restoration work.|
|In 853||(November 8) The Normans looted and burned the basilica it was repaired soon after, but summarily "it appeared inferior to that of ancient times".|
|In 903||(or 904) Last incursion of the Normans, the basilica is restored "with much work and at great expense its appearance was much brighter than the previous one".|
|In 994||(994 or 997 for some) A formidable fire "destroys the basilica as well as 22 churches in the neighborhood". A total reconstruction is required.|
1869 engraving showing the drakkars of a Viking expedition.
866, the death of Robert le Fort, Frankish nobleman, count of Tours and Anjou, count of Poitou, lay abbot of Marmoutier and Saint Martin de Tours, marquis of Neustria, great-grandfather of Hugues Capet, at the battle of Brissarthe against the Vikings and Bretons (link). Previously the city of Le Mans had been sacked. Then Charles the Bald recognized King Salomon as independent of Brittany, but the Danes of King Hasting ravaged Bourges in 867, Orleans in 868, and Angers in 872. On the right, in 881, at the battle of Saucourt en Vimeu, Carolingian troops prevail over the Vikings [Jean-Joseph Dassy, Château de Versailles]. The Viking threat began to wane, failing in 904 in its final assault on Tours, 50 years after the dreadful first raid of 853.
Couillard - Tanter 1986 + two plates on the passage of the Vikings in and around Tours : 1 2 + article by Christian Theureau "La place de la monnaie de Tours" [Ta&m 2007] + article by Guillaume Sarah and Philippe Schiesser on the Merovingian denarii (circa 700) from Tours (2013).
Evolution of the city of Tours 3/7: Martin's town, Martinopole, became the castle and then Châteauneuf. The evolution was slow, from the 5th to the 11th century. Next to the city / civitas of the ancient Caesarodunum was born a second city, around the basilica, commonly called the vicus, sometimes Martinopolis / the city of Martin / the Martinopole. Between 903 and 908, to protect itself from the Vikings, a enclosure fortified is built, the vicus then becomes the castrum, the castle. During the 10th century, thick stone walls gradually replace ditches, earthen embankments and palisades. From the eleventh century on, the town enclosed by this new enclosure was called castrum novum, the new castle of Saint Martin [Pierre Leveel in Level 1994]. Châteauneuf would live for almost four centuries. Around the collegiate church, on about 6 hectares, open spaces allowed the inhabitants of the suburbs to find refuge during alerts. Hélène Noizet has studied the designation of the town of Martin more closely from the tenth to the thirteenth centuries, in a article "From castrum sancti Martini to Châteauneuf [Ta&m 2007].
Sanctus Odo / Odon, first canon of St. Martin and archicantor (first canon), then second abbot of Cluny, first abbot of St. Julian of Tours, in the present basilica, also with his portrait painted (+ image early 20th century). + plank from the comic strip Kings, Monks, and Peasants, script by Florian Mazel, drawing by Vincent Sorel, [The Comic Book Review 2019, link].
Foulques Nerra ravages the basilica. In 990, the terrible Foulques Nerra seized the city of Tours and committed an outrage in the basilica... Driven out by Eudes, Count of Blois, he returned in 994, setting fire to the town of Châteauneuf and to the basilica of Perpet, which did not recover and was replaced by that of the treasurer Hervé de Buzençay [Guignolet 1984] + the plank.. + on Fulk the Black, his seal and the illustrated cover of a 2009 book.
Foulques Nerra, from Jerusalem to Loches. After committing atrocities in and around Touraine, Foulques would go to Jerusalem to do penance and return refreshed. He did this three times, in 1003-1005, 1009-1011 and 1036-1039. The last episode was the most memorable, as these illustrations show. On the left, he is being flogged (link) (another link about his life). On the right, on all fours, he is tearing (would tear...), with his own teeth, a marble shard from Christ's tomb. This relic, which disappeared during the Revolution, was the glory of the abbey of Beaulieu lès Loches, next to Loches [detail of a stained glass window on the transfiguration of Christ in the abbey church of Beaulieu lès Loches, Lobin workshop].